Helminthiasis is a specific class of diseases caused by parasitic organisms. People call them worms. Worms penetrate the human body, affect the internal organs and cause a number of symptoms. The clinical picture (list of violations) is determined by worms that infect a person, and the incubation period is the time when the first sign of invasion appears. According to WHO, several species of worms can infect the body (especially children). What kind of helminths parasitize in the human body? What is their incubation period? What will be the first symptoms?
How does infection happen?
Insert larvae or worm eggs into the body as follows:
- during contact with pets,
- in the sandbox, if the child takes dirty hands in his mouth,
- eating unwashed vegetables and fruits,
- in contact with dirty toys.
Helminth larvae are so small that they cannot be seen with the naked eye. In the environment, parasites can live long enough. When it enters the human body, they begin to develop and multiply, being in the digestive system of the patient. They feel best in the intestines of people, this environment is the most suitable.
Types of helminths
All parasites are classified into groups:
- Round worms (nematodes). These include the most common worms in children - roundworms, pinworms, trichinella, whipworms.
- Tape view of worms (cestodes). These are the following parasites - bovine tapeworm, broad tapeworm and pork tapeworm.
- Worms are flukes (trematodes). This species includes flukes and schistosomes.
Quite often, children are infected with pinworms - these are small white worms, no more than 2 cm in length. The life cycle of the worms is short, when they enter the body they lay eggs in the anus. Children have a burning sensation and itching in this place. After a month, the child will show the first signs of infection. How many worms live in a person depends on the type of parasites that enter the body. Pinworms die quickly enough, and all the symptoms go away. Re-infection can occur when worms enter the body.
Roundworms are parasites that are no less common in children than pinworms. They are slightly smaller, the size reaches 0.5 cm. A healthy child has practically no symptoms, weakened children may have feces with blood. Sometimes in children with a similar disease, prolapse of the rectum occurs. If roundworms are not treated, they will live in the human body for about one year. How many roundworm eggs live depends on the living conditions. If you conduct regular house cleaning and heat treatment of things, then the eggs of the parasites will quickly die.
Whipheads are worms that a child can catch. The specimens are large enough, they reach a length of 5 cm. The first signs appear after 4-6 weeks of life in a person. They settle in the intestinal mucosa, are able to live in the body for 6 years.
Giardia is a very small parasite. They settle not only in the intestine, can be located in the gall bladder of a person. Determining the presence of lamblia in a person is not so simple. To do this, you must pass a special blood test and fecal analysis, which must be brought within 1-2 hours after defecation. How much symptoms can occur depends on the characteristics of the body, in some children there is a common cold, accompanied by allergies.
Toxocara - most often, infection of children occurs before the age of 4 years. The specimens of this parasite are quite large, can be up to 18 cm long.The main symptoms of the disease are fever, choking cough and rashes, accompanied by severe itching.
Signs of parasites entering the child's body
The main symptoms of worm infection depend primarily on the type of parasite. But with all infections, common signs can be distinguished:
- weight loss ,
- unstable appetite, the child often asks to eat, then completely refuses to eat,
- stomach ache ,
- nausea, sometimes turning into vomiting,
- dizziness ,
- bad mood, anxiety, moodiness,
- the presence of worms in the feces of the child.
When a child is sick, worms begin to absorb vitamins and nutrients from the food they eat. As a result, the baby does not receive the necessary trace elements, lags behind in development, loses weight and grows poorly.
No less dangerous for the body are mechanical damage that is caused by some types of parasites. Helminths that live in the intestines can interfere with its function, the child may experience diarrhea or constipation. There is a violation of the intestinal microflora, which leads to the appearance of dysbiosis.
As a result of infection, a child may experience:
- urinary incontinence ,
- the manifestation of allergic reactions on the body,
- frequent occurrences of colds
- in a dream, a child can grit his teeth.
Not necessarily all of these signs will occur simultaneously, only one of them may appear.
Do not self-medicate when worms appear. First of all, you should visit a doctor, go through all the necessary tests and find out the diagnosis. The advantage of the treatment prescribed by a specialist is as follows:
- the doctor prescribes the correct dosage of the drug, which is safe for the child,
- doses of the drug may differ from those recommended in the instructions,
- a specialist can prescribe a complex treatment consisting of several drugs.
As a rule, in case of infection with helminths, anthelmintic drugs, enterosorbents, biological products and enzyme preparations, as well as vitamin complexes are prescribed.
After taking the first pills, the condition of the child may deteriorate sharply, the temperature rises, diarrhea appears, pain in the abdomen and an unpleasant aftertaste in the mouth. This reaction does not mean that the drug is not suitable, but rather the opposite - this means that the drug acts on parasites.
In the absence of modern medical devices, our ancestors used folk methods. On the advice of grandmothers, you can give only cooked carrot juice for two weeks. But this method of treatment is not suitable for a baby who suffers from diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. The remedy that many have heard of is pumpkin seeds, they must be consumed in an amount of 100 to 300 grams. They are effective in treating flatworms.
Chamomile broth favorably affects the entire body and the treatment of worms in particular. You need to drink about a liter per day, but not every child is capable of such a feat.
Hemp oil is a popular anthelmintic in the people, it can be taken in small doses in pure form or applied to bread and eat.
Treatment can be endless if the child does not follow the rules of hygiene. With the infection, it is important not only to drink anthelmintic drugs, but also to organize the life of the child so that he does not become infected again.
First of all, it is necessary to cut the child's nails shorter. Before going to bed, the baby needs to wear panties made of thick fabric, which will not allow combing and getting the parasite eggs on the bed. How many worm eggs live depends on their variety, but re-entry into the body is impossible. Therefore, it is necessary to wash and iron the pastels and things of the child daily with a hot iron.
In the room where the baby lives, it is necessary to carry out daily wet cleaning, to wipe the toys with which the baby plays. It is very important to conduct explanatory work for children, they need to explain how many worms live, how they enter the human body, what harm they can do and how to avoid infection. Prevention measures:
- you need to wash your hands before eating,
- eat pure fruits and vegetables,
- do not pet street animals, and if this happens - immediately wash your hands,
- don't put your hands in your mouth
- observe the rules of hygiene,
- cook fish and meat dishes for at least 40 minutes.
Pediatricians recommend the use of anthelmintic drugs that have a preventive function once every six months, this should be done to children from 1.5 to 7 years. Treatment and prevention of worms in a child is a hot topic. If parasites are detected in the baby, it is necessary to immediately begin treatment, and take measures to prevent re-infection.
The incubation period and symptoms of ascaris worms
These parasites cause ascariasis. Adult females grow up to 40 cm, and males up to 25 cm. Ascarids are very susceptible to the body of the child, into which they enter through dirty berries, fruits, vegetables or water. The first signs of invasion in an adult will appear no later than 6-8 weeks, the incubation period of worms in children is much less - 4-6 weeks.
- Rashes of an allergic nature: itching of the skin, rash, redness.
- The temperature rises. In patients with weakened immunity, the temperature is often 39-40 ° C.
- Weakness. Children quickly become tired, drowsiness is manifested.
- Dizziness and chills.
- Shortness of breath, spasmodic dry cough. Due to lung damage, dull chest pain may develop.
Since the incubation period of worms in humans varies from 4 to 8 weeks, the signs will intensify: gastrointestinal tract and nervous system disorders, vomiting, insomnia. This is due to an increase in the number of parasites. The patient quickly loses weight with plenty of food.
The incubation period of pinworms in children
These parasites cause enterobiosis, which affects 95% of children. The worm has a length of up to 1 cm and shows activity at night. A characteristic sign of pinworm infestation is itching and discomfort in the anus. Short worms, the incubation period of which is 12-15 days, cause:
- Itching in the buttocks, lower abdomen and thighs.
- Discomfort in the genital area.
- Redness of the skin in the affected area.
- Urethritis, thrush, vulvovaginitis.
- Teeth grinding in a dream.
- Great anxiety during a night's rest.
With an increase in pinworms in the intestines of the child, the symptoms become more pronounced. The kid is very naughty, nervous, flatulence and constipation (diarrhea), allergies and others appear.
The incubation period of worms, whipworms
Whipworms are a genus of worms that reach a length of 35 to 54 cm (the female is longer). Since the incubation period for these worms is long — is 1-1.5 months, then the signs of invasion will appear only when a sufficient number of worms accumulate in the intestine. Symptoms
- Nausea and often vomiting.
- Loss of appetite.
- Anemia (with significant invasion).
- Sudden weight loss.
- Spasmodic pains in the lower abdomen.
An infected person with trichocephalosis is isolated during treatment.
The incubation period of other types of worms
The body of an adult and a child can be affected by other types of worms. What is the name of worms, the incubation period and the main signs:
- Hookworm (hookworm). The first discomfort appears 35-63 days after the invasion.
- Intestinal acne (strongyloidosis). Signs are noticeable after 15-27 (30) days.
- The chain is dwarf (hymenolepidosis). The first clinical manifestations occur after 7-15 days.
- Wide tape (defillobotriosis).Worms cause the first symptoms after 2.5-6 weeks.
- Trematodes (opisthorchiasis). Primary symptoms appear in 2-4 weeks.
- Fascioli - biohelminths (fascioliasis). The incubation period of worms is 1-2 months.
Treatment is performed with antiparasitic drugs.
Worm infection: pinworms, pinworm eggs and their excretion from the body
Pinworm worms are detected quite often. Helminths throughout a person’s life are found in almost everyone. Often diagnosed with such a pathology as enterobiosis. The causative agents of this disease are pinworms. Currently, there are many varieties of helminths.
All of them are parasites, since they live at the expense of their master. Pinworms in most cases affect children and adolescents. Adults get sick much less often. What features do these helminths have and what is their effect on the human body?
Pinworms are representatives of the class of nematodes (roundworms). These helminths live and develop in the human body. In some cases, enterobiosis affects chimpanzees. What do pinworms look like? These are small white worms. The body length of the female is 10-12 mm, the males are about 2 times less. Pathogens for humans are pinworms of the genus Enterobius vermicularis. The pinworms body is elongated, there are sharp points from the ends. This roundworm lives and multiplies in the intestines. Sometimes helminths can stand out with feces. The habitat of the parasite is the cecum and colon.
The development cycle of these parasites is simple. Pinworms are replicated in the ileum. As a result of mating, the males die, and the female soon lays eggs. To do this, she needs to crawl out through the anus. Egg laying is carried out in the perianal region. After that, the females die. The eggs of the parasite have a special double-circuit shell. The worm belongs to biohelminths. This means that for a full development cycle, he does not need to get into the environment. It develops in a living organism. Adult pinworms live 3-4 weeks. In the event that a person does not lay eggs in the mouth from the perianal region, self-healing is possible.
Human infection occurs orally. The alimentary path is realized through self-infection. During laying eggs by the female, severe itching often occurs. This contributes to skin irritation of the child, it begins to comb the skin, after which the eggs fall on the hands. Eggs enter the gastrointestinal tract when eating food or when a child pulls fingers in its mouth. Pinworm eggs are transmitted in another way. A large number of eggs laid often leads to their spread. Eggs may fall on surrounding objects (clothing, toys, bedding). Other children and adults are very often infected. Similar cases occur in kindergartens.
Adults acquire the disease by contact with infected objects or babies. It is important that these helminths are able to be transmitted through a simple handshake. Such helminthiases are called contact. Along with enterobiosis, this group includes hymenolepidosis. All this can contribute to the emergence of outbreaks of enterobiosis. The risk group is children from 5 to 10 years old who do not attend organized groups. Pinworms are often found in the feces of pregnant women. Most often, women become infected from their children. Pinworms do not pose a great threat to the fetus, but in the process of childbirth, infection of the baby is possible.
Pinworms on humans
It is necessary to know not only what pinworms are, but also their negative impact on humans. It was established that these parasitic worms have the following effects on the body of their host:
- damaging effect on intestinal tissue,
- immunosuppressive (inhibition of body resistance),
- annoying effect.
In addition, pinworms are dangerous in that they can inhibit the activity of the nervous system. Penetrating into the intestines, they are attached to the mucous membrane. Some individuals are able to plunge into the wall of the intestine at half the length of their body. This contributes to the development of an inflammatory reaction. As a result, this can lead to the formation of granulomas. Against the background of enterobiasis, inflammation of the stomach, small and duodenum very often develops.
The pinworm is sometimes found in the appendix. There is a theory that these parasites can be one of the causes of appendicitis. In infected adults with a long course of the disease, damage to the rectum is possible. Pinworms can cause fistulas, proctitis. Pinworms, leaving at night in the perianal space, secrete a special acid that causes itching. The latter sometimes leads to dermatitis, the appearance of eczema. In girls, in the case of worm migration, various complications are possible. During this period, worms can penetrate the vagina and even the uterus. There is a risk of developing vulvitis, vaginitis, endometritis. In boys, worms often contribute to dysfunction of the genitourinary system.
Manifestations of Enterobiosis
The incubation period for this pathology is about 15 days. The source of invasion is a sick person. The most common signs of pinworm infection are:
- itching and burning in the anus,
- baby crying,
- disturbance of night sleep (it is difficult for a child to fall asleep),
- stomach ache,
- impaired appetite (increase or decrease),
- stool disorder, such as diarrhea or constipation,
- weakness, fatigue,
- pallor of the skin,
Sometimes enterobiosis proceeds unnoticed. At the same time, the parents of the sick baby are not suspected of having an invasion. Symptoms such as nausea and vomiting indicate a severe degree of invasion. It is important that the female helminth is able to lay up to 10-15 thousand eggs. Most of them die, but in the absence of personal hygiene measures, hundreds and even thousands of adults can develop in the intestines. Sometimes enterobiosis leads to temperature.
In girls, a specific symptom of enterobiosis is a violation of urination. Pinworms in the absence of proper treatment can lead to a delay in the growth and development of children, as they interfere with the normal functioning of the digestive tract, have a toxic effect and reduce the absorption of nutrients. Possible complications of the disease include peritonitis, vulvovaginitis, balanitis, dysuria, epileptiform seizures, enterocolitis, appendicitis, inflammation of the fallopian tubes or ovaries in girls.
Diagnostic and therapeutic measures
It is important to know not only the causes of enterobiasis, but also the treatment. To do this, you need to examine the patient. Diagnosis of enterobiosis involves the detection of eggs. To do this, scraping is done from the perianal region. Scraping is carried out before washing. In some cases, the adhesive tape method is used. Equally important is the study of blood. Marked eosinophilia indicates the presence of pinworms. Enterobiosis can pass on its own without specific treatment, but for this it is necessary to strictly observe the rules of personal hygiene.
The treatment of enterobiasis is conservative, it includes the use of antiparasitic drugs (Vermoxa, Albendazole or Levamisole).
The medicine is selected individually by the attending physician. The drug is taken according to the instructions. Immediately after its use, it is necessary to observe personal hygiene measures so that the eggs do not spread and accidentally fall into the stomach. This allows you to disrupt the life cycle of pinworms. Hygiene measures include:
- ironing of bed and underwear with an iron,
- nail cutting
- frequent hand washing (especially after going to the toilet and before eating food),
- daily change of underwear,
- regular washing in hot water,
- taking a hot shower daily
- restriction of contact with other children,
- change of bedding,
- wet cleaning with detergents,
- disinfection of the toilet.
Only a combination of drug therapy with the above measures gives the desired effect and contributes to the recovery of a sick person. During the treatment period, it is possible to prescribe laxatives to remove dead helminths from the body. Thus, pinworms do not pose a threat to the life of the patient. Nevertheless, enterobiosis requires strict adherence to the treatment regimen, otherwise reinfestation (re-infection) is possible.
Signs of helminth infection in adults
Infection with helminths, or parasitic worms, popularly called worms, is a very common phenomenon. Millionth outbreaks of helminthiasis are recorded annually around the world. The most common forms of helminthiasis are:
Helminthic invasion in humans entails the development of many diseases. As numerous studies show, the prevalence of helminthiases of various forms is enormous, especially in certain categories of the population.
Thus, diphyllobothriasis is often observed among fishing enthusiasts, hunters are prone to trichinosis, pinworm infection is observed in children.
Helminths include round, flat, and tapeworms. The human body can become a carrier of more than four hundred varieties of parasitic forms, their types and groups. It can be nematodes that cause a disease such as nematodosis, scratches, leading to the development of acanthosephallosis, cestodes, or tapeworms, leading to cestodosis, trematodes, which cause the development of trematodosis.
Symptoms of helminthiasis, as a rule, are sluggishly expressed. Worms are able to disguise themselves as other diseases, for example, the gastrointestinal tract or liver, and forms that mimic gallbladder diseases are also widespread. A person can be treated for several years for a disease without suspecting a true diagnosis and damage to the body by helminth forms, says the infectious disease specialist of the Moscow clinic for children and adolescents SM-Doctor, pediatrician Tatyana Leonidovna Tarasova.
The most striking and clearly expressed symptoms of the massive presence of parasitic worms in the human body include:
- Anemia, or unhealthy pallor of the skin and sclera.
- Exhaustion of appearance.
- Sharp weight loss.
- Itching in the anus.
- Flatulence and bloating.
But these are only common symptoms of helminths and their parasitic effects on the body, both an adult and a child. The general condition of the patient, as well as the manifestation of symptoms and possible intoxication, depend on the type of parasitic form of the worm, zonal localization and the intensity of invasion.
The asymptomatic course of the disease is observed only in the presence of single parasites, if the size of the worm is small. The defeat of the body by a wide ribbon tape, which is huge, is felt by the patient as the parasite grows, literally from the first days of invasion.
The incubation period of development of each type of parasitic worm is different. So, when infected with roundworms, the general condition of a person can worsen already on the second or third day from the moment of infection. As a rule, intestinal forms of worms make themselves felt only after a couple of weeks. The incubation period of various types of filariasis proceeds from six months to a year and a half.
Enterobiosis, or pinworms - a small number of helminths can cause periodic itching in the anus for one or two days, after which the symptoms fade and reappear only after two weeks. The symptom is permanent.As the worms multiply, the break time decreases, and the itching becomes constant. Severe invasion leads to persistent itching in the anus.
Diseases such as diphyllobothriasis and trichocephalosis caused by invasion of a certain type of helminths lead to the development of anemia and severe vitamin deficiency. The products of their vital activity cause intoxication, which contributes to strong changes in the intestine with the overwhelming development of pathogenic microflora, which contributes to the development of dysbiosis.
Symptoms of ascariasis and the consequences of the disease
Ascarids are considered the most common type of helminths, affecting equally both children and adults. This is one of the most dangerous types of worms, because depending on the phase of development, worm larvae can migrate through the blood stream, settling in the internal organs of a person.
The initial phase of infection is characterized by an increase in the patient's body temperature to subfebrile indicators, general weakness, cough with the separation of purulent-slug phlegm, which may contain blood. It is during the initial phase that the worm larvae migrate through the internal organs. They can be found in the lungs, heart, liver.
Also during this period, volatile infiltrates are formed that are clearly visible on x-ray photos of the lungs. Their disappearance is noted two weeks after the onset of the disease. In blood tests, there is a marginal indicator of eosinophils that contribute to allergic manifestations. The development of suffocating bronchitis or severe pneumonia is caused by a high degree of invasion.
The second or late stage of ascariasis is characterized by disorders in the gastrointestinal tract. The waste products of roundworm in the body provoke the neutralization of trypsin and pepsin - substances that contribute to the decomposition of protein. At a late stage, protein is not absorbed in the body, as a result of which a person loses weight dramatically.
The complications caused by ascariasis include:
- Obstructive jaundice.
- Exacerbation of appendicitis.
- Acute intestinal obstruction.
Disorders in the human body caused by various types of parasites
With the development of all types of helminthiases, common signs of a central nervous system disorder are observed: dizziness, headache, irritation and fatigue, emphasizes T.L. Tarasova.
Each type of helminth is accompanied by signs characteristic only for it:
Our readers recommend it! For the prevention and treatment of parasitic infections, our readers recommend the Bactefort Parasite Remedy. It consists exclusively of medicinal plants collected in ecologically clean places, which are extremely effective in cleansing the body of parasites, as well as heal and protect the body as a whole. The opinion of doctors. "
- Muscle pain, fever, swelling of the face, eyelids - symptoms of infection with trichinosis.
- Jaundice syndrome, an increase in internal organs, such as liver, spleen, exacerbation of pancreatitis, cholecystitis, cholangitis, gastrointestinal tract pathology - is characteristic of fascioliasis.
- Pathologies of the bile and urinary system, as well as dyspeptic disorders, are characteristic of helminthiasis strongoloidosis.
- The manifestation of diuretic disorders with the presence of blood in the urine, which appears at the end of the urination process, is characteristic of genitourinary schistosomiasis.
- Violation of the functional activity of the gastrointestinal tract with characteristic symptoms of chronic diarrhea or constipation, flatulence, nausea, girdle pain, localized in the navel area with general malaise, suggests that the location of the worms is the intestine, and not other internal organs of a person.
Signs of the presence of parasites can be both mild and long-lasting. It directly depends on invasion or reinfestation.Toxic substances released by parasites, like human hormones, can cause severe diarrhea. Large parasites are able to partially overlap and clog the intestines, causing constipation. Before starting treatment, accurate diagnosis is needed to confirm the presence of parasites.
During the life cycle in the body, worms release a mass of toxic substances, causing intoxication of various degrees. The negative effect of toxins affects the activity of the central nervous system. The disease is accompanied by headache, nausea and dizziness. Patients often see this condition as migraine, and treatment is carried out in accordance with the established pseudo diagnosis.
Often intoxication can cause joint pain with an increase in temperature indicators to a subfebrile mark, up to the patient's fever. Without an accurate diagnosis, treatment can be done to lower the temperature and relieve joint pain. It, as a rule, is without success.
Very often with helminthic invasion, night sleep disturbances are observed, leading to chronic fatigue syndrome. Overcrowding, irritability, drowsiness in the daytime and sleeplessness at night can haunt not only adults, but also children. This condition causes the child to be absent-minded, inattentive, lagging behind in all school subjects. In such cases, without an accurate diagnosis, the planned treatment may not give the corresponding results.
Invasion and allergic reactions of the body
Human skin in a certain way reacts to the toxin secreted by worms. The desensitization of the body, caused by the vital activity of parasites, manifests itself in the form of allergic skin rashes. They are caused by the release of mast cell histamine followed by the accumulation of lymph under the epidermis.. The Internet has posted numerous photos demonstrating the reaction of the skin of a person to intoxication with helminths.
In a similar way, the occurrence of other reactions caused by the toxin of helminth activity in adults and children:
- barking dry cough
- bronchial asthma,
Stratification of the nail plate, dry hair, cracking on the palms and heels can indicate the presence of helminths. Women with pinworm infection may be susceptible to the development of inflammatory processes such as bacterial vaginosis, accompanied by secretions that smell like fish, or vulvovaginitis. Inflammation of the uterine appendages in childhood is the result of helminthic pinworm infestation, which is of a prolonged nature, says the infectious disease specialist T.L. Tarasova.
According to the doctor’s suggestion, the manifestation of tooth grinding during night sleep, as well as snoring, may be due to the presence of helminths in the body.
Medication for helminthiasis in adults
Treatment can only be prescribed by a doctor. After the analysis and identification of the type of parasite, a specialist prescribes a course of drugs that expels worms:
- With enterobiosis and trichocephalosis, preparations containing mebendazole are prescribed.
- Felariotosis, which affects the lymphatic system, subcutaneous tissue or eye tissue, lends itself well to treatment with products containing diethylcarbamazine.
- Ascaridosis, toxoplasmosis, enterobiosis and necatorosis are treated with drugs containing levamisole.
- Roundworms are expelled with preparations containing befeniumhydroxineaphtholate.
- Cysticercosis and echinococcosis are effectively treated with albendazole.
With exacerbation of diseases caused by helminths, infusion therapy is carried out. Treatment depends on the degree of invasion and is prescribed in combination:
- hemodesis, or calcium chloride / gluconate,
- ascorbic acid
- Vitamin B6
- sodium bicarbonate
In cases of aggravation with hyperthermia, Suprastin is introduced into the treatment. With hypertension, Cordiamine is prescribed. Hormonal drugs, such as prednisone, in combination with potassium preparations are prescribed in case of allergic myocarditis or hepatitis. With heart failure, treatment is carried out in combination with Cocorboxylase, with significant edema, Furosemide is prescribed.
Folk methods of expelling worms
The most effective means of controlling intestinal parasites are pumpkin seeds. The method of preparing an anthelmintic is quite simple. 100 grams of unroasted plant seeds are crushed with a blender until gruel is formed. 100 ml of boiled water and not more than two tablespoons of honey are added to it.
The use of the drug begins immediately after sleep, on an empty stomach, after which it continues every hour three more times. Then a laxative is taken. As a laxative, you can use castor oil or any pharmacy, such as Purgen or Gutalaks. After two hours, an enema is placed.
In conclusion, I want to say that the manifestation of helminthic invasion is often a "disease of dirty hands" and neglect of the rules of general hygiene. Wash your hands before eating and be healthy.
Author Voitenko A.
How many pinworms live in the human body, life cycle, development
Adult pinworms live in the human body, which is both the main and intermediate host, for a very short time. The cycle of their development from exit from the egg of the larva to death is not more than 1.5-2 months. But, despite this, it is not so easy to get rid of this kind of worms that cause enterobiosis in people. Their treatment can be long and problematic due to the fact that for any violations in compliance with hygiene requirements, repeated self-infection occurs. Patients are often interested in what pinworms look like. To distinguish them from other types of parasites is quite simple. Outwardly, they look like small, from 0.5 to 1 cm, pointed white sticks. It is because of this that they got their name.
Although pinworms have a very short lifespan, they inflict great harm on the person invaded by them, since their population in the host organism increases tenfold over a short period of time. This is due to the fact that females who have reached adulthood begin to breed at a frantic rate. The helminth development cycle proceeds as follows:
- The sexually mature female pinworm living in the human body, filled with a large number of mature eggs, is unable to stay on the walls of the intestine and descends into its lower sections for reproduction,
- The second stage of the cycle is that at night, when the muscles of the anal sphincter relax, it creeps out and lays eggs in the perianal folds of the host, thereby causing severe itching. The life of an adult pinworm ends here, and the parasite development cycle continues due to the fact that a person begins to comb itchy areas and puts eggs under his nails, and then on household items and food.
Further development of viable pinworm larvae takes place inside the egg, which is covered with two membranes. This period of their development is considered incubation. Ideal conditions for ripening, which love worms, is the temperature of the human body and an average level of humidity. After 4-6 hours, the larvae located in the eggs become invasive, that is, ready to move to the next cycle. In the event that the fertilized eggs remain in the external environment, the incubation period of pinworms lasts up to 15 days.
The completion of the pinworm development cycle in the human body
The lifespan of this parasitic worm proceeds in the body of the main host. Its duration, as already mentioned, lasts 30-60 days.This development cycle begins with the fact that viable helminth eggs that are in the incubation period that enter the body move into the small intestine. Pinworm larvae hatch from them, which attach to the mucosa using the mouth opening. The transformation of worm larvae into sexually mature individuals does not last long, for about 2 weeks.
Adult worms feed on the contents of the intestines, and also love to swallow blood from the capillaries located in its walls. So pinworms live until the onset of fertilization. After it happened, the males die, and the females filled with eggs advance for reproduction to the anus. The life cycle of adults ends here and, provided the patient follows the rules of personal hygiene, re-infection can be avoided.
How many pinworms live outside the body?
Enterobiosis infection factors are considered objects of the environment infected with helminth eggs and animal skins. That is why people who are afraid of invasion are interested in the duration of their life outside the intestines. In the external environment, parasite eggs can remain infectious for up to a month. Certain conditions are necessary for this - temperature conditions from 20 ° C to 40 ° C and a humidity level of at least 70%. Pinworm egg viability ceases when:
- The humidity level is significantly reduced,
- The temperature becomes too low or excessively high
- They begin to be affected by direct sunlight.
But chlorine-based products are completely harmless to pinworm eggs. Their viability when processing surrounding objects with such drugs does not stop. The best disinfection will be the use of a saturated solution of laundry soap. In addition, potentially infected items and underwear should be boiled or frozen, and then ironed on 2 sides. Plastic and rubber toys of a child infected with these helminths should also be washed regularly in soapy water, and the pot and toilet bowl where the patient is defecated should be rinsed with boiling water. It is these procedures that will contribute to the speedy death of parasite eggs. You can also stop the life of pinworm eggs in the external environment using an ultraviolet lamp. It is enough to include it in the room where the invaded patient is located, for half an hour a day.
Pinworms are parasites whose appearance in the human intestine leads to the development of enterobiosis. The name of this disease comes from Enterobiusvermicularis, a Latin term used in medical science to refer to the pinworm of humans, which is the most common type of helminthic infestation.
Enterobiosis provoked by pinworms is also known under the often used name “dirty hands disease”. This reflects the very essence of such a disease, since its causes are neglect of personal hygiene rules or insufficient compliance with them. For the same reason, most at risk for pinworms are children. These intestinal parasites are called pinworms due to the fact that the body of the female has a shape that is very sharp to the tail.
The presence of pinworms in the body is accompanied by the appearance of intestinal disorders and a feeling of severe itching in the anus. The most common route of infection is through direct contact with people who carry pinworm eggs. Getting into the esophagus and further into the gastrointestinal tract, into the duodenum, larvae of microscopic sizes appear from eggs, not more than 0.15 mm. Adult pinworms males have a 2-5-mm millimeter size, and females reach sizes from 9 to 13 millimeters.
The development of larvae into adults occurs in the process of their movement in the direction of the end of the large intestine, during which they feed through the intestines. The result of this migration is mating, after which the males, having fertilized the females, die, and the latter remain at the beginning of the large intestine. Subsequently, the females lay their eggs on the skin of the anus surrounding the sphincter, and in turn die.
When a person has pinworms, it is often quite difficult and problematic to get rid of them, since constant autoinvasion can occur. To alleviate the sensation of itching in the anus, many comb it, which leads to eggs getting under the nails and subsequently into the food, which ultimately leads to a new appearance of parasites in the intestine. Thus the circle closes.
So, what is the structure of pinworm and what do these parasites look like when their eggs enter the body, nesting in the human intestines?
Pinworm is a parasitic roundworm of the nematode Enterobius vermicularis from the group of thin helminites or worms. This parasite received the name of pinworm widely used for its designation due to the fact that the tail end of the female's body is pointed in shape.
Females are superior in size to males, and their length reaches a size of up to 10 millimeters, and in the latter it is approximately half as long. Males have a length of about 5 millimeters. The body shape of males and females of pinworm is also not identical. Unlike the female body, pointed at one end, of the spindle-shaped body, in males the posterior end of the body is twisted like a snail.
The bodies of pinworms of both sexes are white with a grayish tint. In the front of them is a swelling called a vesicle. The function of the vesicle is that the parasite with its help can attach to the inner walls of the intestine.
Female pinworms lay eggs with an oval shape and shell without any particular color. The pinworm egg is convex on one side, and on the other it has a flattening.
The protective membrane of the eggs, dissolving in the duodenum, releases larvae that move in the direction of the lower parts of the small and upper parts of the colon to the cecum and the initial part of the colon. there, in the process of growth and development, after a two-week period, pinworms become capable of reproducing offspring.
Summing up the above, it can be argued that the structure of pinworm is maximally suited for the parasitic existence of this pathogen enterobiosis in the human intestine. For example, due to their small size, pinworms easily penetrate the human body, and the presence of a vesicle makes it easier for them to gain a foothold on the walls of the intestine.
The life cycle of pinworms after the eggs of these parasites appear in the intestine begins with the hatching of larvae from these eggs. It takes two to four weeks for an adult to develop from a larva. The total life span of pinworms is not more than one month.
Their habitat in the human body is the cecum, upper calving of the large and lower parts of the small intestine.
Being fertilized, the females begin to move in the direction of the rectum, after which, leaving the anus, they lay eggs in the immediate vicinity of it. As a rule, this happens at night, because when a person is sleeping, the muscles of the anal sphincter are relaxed.
The number of eggs laid by one female can reach 13 thousand. Having fulfilled their function of continuing the population, pinworms come to the end of their life cycle. They dry out and turn into an amorphous mass.
Egg maturation is observed after 4 to 6 hours from the moment of their laying.In order to ensure egg development processes, certain suitable conditions are necessary. In particular, a high degree of humidity and high temperature of 34-36 degrees Celsius. The crotch and the area of perianal folds are just able to provide such.
If proper hygienic rules are not observed for this part of the human body, female pinworms can continue to migrate until they reach the vagina and uterus, also penetrating the fallopian tubes and appearing in the pelvic cavity. Where do they bring colonies of pathogenic microbes from the intestines.
The pinworm cycle in the course of its development consists in the fact that the eggs that enter the intestine are converted into larvae, which within a few weeks reach an adult state, and adult individuals, in turn, again lay eggs, thereby completing the process, and everything repeats from the beginning .
The causes of pinworm are characterized by the ways in which these intestinal parasites become infected. Pinworms can be transmitted according to a person-to-person scheme, or from an animal to a person.
Their presence in humans causes severe itching in the anus, and combing the perineum, the carrier of such an infection contributes to the entry of pinworm eggs under the nails. If the basic hygienic rules are not observed, the patient, during a meal, brings them back into the body, where they, once in the intestines, begin their new life cycle. And physically contacting with a handshake, touching other healthy people, such a person becomes a carrier of the disease.
Pinworm eggs in some cases can be in the hair of animals, which is why every contact with a pet calls for the need to thoroughly wash their hands.
Thus, the causes of pinworm mainly come down to the factors that remain due to the fact that people, mainly children in kindergarten and in the lower grades of the school, often do not adhere to the prescribed hygiene rules. This is especially true of kindergartens and elementary schools, where children not only have close contact with each other, getting such an intestinal infection themselves, but also often become carriers of this disease to teachers, teachers and parents. Not for nothing that many call the pinworm-induced enterobiosis “dirty hands disease”.
Pinworm infection occurs due to physical contact of a person who carries these parasites in the intestines with healthy people. Eggs that are laid by female pinworms can get on the patient's skin. And besides this, their presence can be noted on objects with which a person infected with these parasites came into contact. Infection of a healthy person occurs when pinworm eggs enter the body along with inhaling dusty air or while eating. Insects - flies and cockroaches, which bring their eggs to food, can also act as a peddler of pinworm infection.
A fairly common phenomenon is the possibility of repeated self-infection, which has the name autoinvasion. In this case, the following literally holds. At the time when a person with pinworms combs the anal area, where severe itching occurs from the eggs laid by them, the latter appear under the nails. And if you wash your hands thoroughly before eating, these eggs, along with food, reappear in the intestines. In this regard, the risk of re-infection with pinworms is especially great for those who have a bad habit of biting their nails. This mainly concerns children.
Therefore, to prevent pinworm infection, you need to wean the child from this, and in addition, shorten your nails briefly, wash it with soap at least twice a day, morning and evening, and monitor the cleanliness of your hands.
Pinworm incubation period
The incubation period for pinworms, or rather, in the case of enterobiosis due to these intestinal parasites, is approximately 15 days.
In some cases, the disease takes on a clinically pronounced form, while in others it may not be accompanied by manifestations of any obvious symptoms.
A mild form of the disease is characterized by mild itching in the anus. It appears mainly in the evening before going to bed, and after 1 to 3 days it spontaneously stops. But after a 2-3-week time period, it can resume again. This frequency corresponds to the periods in which pinworms are replaced when reinfestation occurs. If massive repeated reinvasion leads to the fact that pinworms in the intestine form a large congestion, the sensation of itching haunts a person, not stopping, and becomes intolerable. The intensity of the itching reaches its maximum, mainly at night, especially favorable for pinworms to freely lay eggs, which will already be ripe by morning.
Intensive pinworm infection leads to malaise and general weakness of the body, to increased fatigue and sleep disturbances. Pain symptoms are concentrated in the navel and are acute in nature. They occur mainly in the process of eating, less often - after eating.
Repeated regular abdominal pain attacks over a long period of time can become a motive for seeking medical advice, but it is usually not possible to make a clear definite diagnosis while the incubation period lasts with pinworms.
How many pinworms live?
How many pinworms live? It should be noted that there is currently no single definite opinion and confirmed data on their total life expectancy. According to some sources, pinworms do not live longer than one month, while others in this matter cite a figure of 3 and a half months.
Nevertheless, the unequivocal and not causing doubt is the fact that these intestinal parasites are quite high resistant to various environmental factors and can show considerable resistance to the effects of disinfectants. Outside the human body, pinworms are able to remain viable for a period of 25 days. The fundamental factor affecting the life span of pinworms is how favorable are the conditions in which these pathogens of enterobiasis are. So being in the water in the water supply, pinworms can remain alive for one to three weeks. The maximum life expectancy that they can achieve in this case is mainly determined by the degree of saturation of water with oxygen and its temperature.
Regarding how many pinworms live, one can summarize such a result that it largely depends on where they live: inside the human body or in the external environment. The life span of pinworms in the human intestines is directly related to their life cycle, during which the females are fertilized, followed by laying eggs, hatching larvae and the formation of adult individuals, which in turn produce a new generation of parasites.
In some cases, when infected with these parasites, the symptoms of pinworm may not be detected in almost any manifestations, or be expressed very weakly, implicitly. Therefore, the first, on the basis of which it becomes possible to assume that there is an enterobiotic lesion, is the appearance of itching in the perianal region.This discomforting sensation lasts approximately 3 days from the moment of occurrence, after which it passes spontaneously. However, a fairly frequent tendency to its resumption after a 2-3-week break is noted. This time period is by no means accidental, since it displays the cyclical nature of the change in the generation of pinworms in the patient's body. When infection with these intestinal parasites is massive, itching can often become simply unbearable for humans. In turn, this leads to the fact that scratches appear on the skin in the perineum, dermatitis can occur. In addition, the possibility of joining a secondary infection is not excluded.
Enterobiosis caused by pinworms is characterized by all kinds of digestive disorders. These include frequent stools with a consistency similar to gruel, in some cases with the presence of a certain amount of mucus. There is the appearance of tenesmus - frequent urges to empty the intestines, which, however, do not lead to bowel movements and are accompanied by severe pain. Pain symptoms can also occur in the abdomen and perineum. In addition, pinworms provoke nausea, induce vomiting, lead to dry mucous membranes of the oral cavity, and poor appetite.
The course of the disease, characterized by a severe degree of invasion, is accompanied by headaches and dizziness, disturbances in sleep processes, increased fatigue and the appearance of irritability.
If pinworms penetrate the female genital organs, as a result of this, all kinds of inflammations develop, similar in their symptoms to the course of gonorrhea.
Due to the presence of these parasites in the cecum, attacks of acute appendicitis of enterobiotic origin can occur.
Symptoms of pinworm occur in the form of specific negative reactions of various organs and systems of the human body to the presence of parasites. This is manifested primarily in a change for the worse in the balance of beneficial and pathogenic bacteria in the intestine, leading to dysbiosis. Which increases the risk of infection by pathogens of acute intestinal infections.
Pinworms in pregnant women
Cases when pinworms are detected in pregnant women do not constitute any out of the ordinary, exceptional phenomenon. But if in the usual state to get rid of such an infection with intestinal parasites does not present anything so complicated and problematic with the help of appropriate drugs, then at a time when a woman is carrying a child, this can really become a problem raised to the nth degree. Indeed, for pregnant women, the use of such antiparasitic agents is contraindicated. In addition, those who are preparing in speed to experience all the joys of motherhood are often worried, and is there a danger that, due to their infection with pinworms, any harm to the future baby can be caused. To dispel all such fears, we note that there are absolutely no grounds for those. Pinworms cannot penetrate the child's body during its intrauterine development. Accordingly, the risk of somehow adversely affecting the baby's development processes is excluded.
Thus, the question takes on a different color and consists in getting rid of pinworms and minimizing the possibility of negative consequences associated with them, primarily for a pregnant woman. To date, there are many proven and effective methods of non-drug treatment of these parasites that could suit a woman in a position. It should be borne in mind that in order to avoid any kind of allergies, you should consult your doctor before using them.
An enema with baking soda in an aqueous solution is another effective measure against pinworms. And the use of anesthetic ointment can help cope with itching in the perineum.
Pinworms in pregnant women will not affect the development of the child in the prenatal period, but care must be taken in choosing measures against these parasites to prevent harm to either him or the expectant mother by this very treatment. Preliminary medical consultation should be indispensable.
Pinworms with lactation
While the baby has not yet been born and is in the womb, intestinal parasites are in no way able to get into his body. But after the permission to give birth, a woman should do everything possible to protect the newborn from this kind of infection. If a woman has pinworms during lactation and during the period when she is breast-feeding, breastfeeding should be discontinued. In this case, milk must be expressed and drained. This is based on the fact that antiparasitic drugs taken by a nursing mother can adversely affect the condition of the baby.
Continuing breastfeeding while treatment and preventive measures for pinworms are carried out may be permissible only if medications are not used with it.
Such measures of non-drug treatment may be, for example, the following. In order to prevent the possibility of repeated autoinvasion, the anus between the acts of defecation can be laid with a cotton swab. This will become an obstacle for pinworms to exit the anus and lay in the perianal region the eggs of a new generation of parasites.
For eliminating pinworms, enemas may also be appropriate, which should be accompanied by hygiene measures. The use of this method, however, can adversely affect the course of the disease with hemorrhoids, if it is present in a woman. In such cases, it is necessary to interrupt breastfeeding for the period of taking medications against pinworms.
Pinworms during lactation, as can be seen from the foregoing, cause the need to wean the baby from the breast for the time required for the treatment of a nursing woman with medications, since they can cause unwanted consequences in the baby.
Pinworms in children
The nature of the disease of enterobiasis, which causes pinworms in children, manifests itself in a more significant degree of severity of its main symptoms in comparison with its course in patients in adulthood. These intestinal parasites in children cause severe intoxication of the body with their waste products, which is accompanied by the appearance of headaches, sleep disturbances, increased fatigue, irritability, distraction and memory impairment in a child. In some cases, incontinence may be noted, and for girls there is a risk that pinworms get into the genitals, provoking vulvovaginitis.
Children do not have such self-control as adults and do not always follow basic hygiene rules, which is why they are more likely to comb the crotch, and as a result are more likely to be re-infected, and in addition to this, in kindergartens and in the lower grades of the school, they are in close contact with each other, becoming one another for a friend, parasite carriers.
Pinworms in children require immediate treatment, an important point of which is to prevent re-infection, for which it is necessary to ensure that the child adheres to the rules of personal hygiene, and also to change his clothes in fresh underwear and change clothes every day. It must be borne in mind that if pinworms are detected in a child, all family members should undergo treatment for them.
Why are pinworms dangerous?
The timely detection of parasites in the human intestines and the prescribed immediate appropriate treatment with a high degree of probability guarantees the onset of absolute recovery. So what threats to the body lie in the occurrence of helminthic lesions and what are the danger of pinworms?
First of all, the negative consequences of their presence are manifested in the fact that as a result of the processes of their growth and reproduction, all kinds of metabolic products are formed that can have a toxic and poisonous effect on the body. Pinworms can also provoke inflammatory processes in the cecum, leading to cases of acute appendicitis.
In addition, the danger of pinworms lies in their destructiveness in relation to the beneficial microflora in the intestine, which becomes a factor determining the development of dysbiosis, as well as provoking the multiplication of pathogenic microorganisms. Pinworms have a detrimental effect on the functioning of the immune system, in connection with which the likelihood of all kinds of allergies increases, and in addition, they increase the risk of atopic dermatitis.
When pinworms occur in the intestine, this becomes the reason why during the period of this disease a significant decrease in the effectiveness of vaccination can be noted, up to the complete absence of the effect of the administered vaccine.
Pinworms are dangerous for young girls, because they can penetrate the genitals. Together with them, fungi and other pathogenic microorganisms are introduced from the intestines, which can cause vulvovaginitis.
Why are pinworms dangerous? First of all, the fact that at the very beginning of their appearance
any significant disturbing symptoms may be implicit, and the consequences often come to light only as parasites develop and multiply in the human body. It should also be borne in mind that during initial pinworm infection, the phenomenon of autoinvasion is often observed, in which secondary and tertiary infection occurs. Therefore, when pinworms are identified, the issue of hygiene becomes very relevant.
Consequences of pinworms
Pinworms parasitize in the human intestines, with the help of a special formation on the body - vesicles adhere to its walls. They damage the intestinal mucosa, as a result of which large fragments of food can enter the bloodstream through such damaged areas. This becomes one of the prerequisites for the development of an allergic reaction. In the process of their life, these intestinal parasites secrete a lot of substances harmful to the body, leading to intoxication.
The consequences of pinworms in their detrimental effect on the functioning of the nervous system take place in the form of an increased irritability present in the patient, the appearance of headaches, dizziness and sleep problems also occur. A person infected with pinworms is prone to excessive physical and mental fatigue.
Appearing in the vermiform appendix of the intestine, pinworms are able to provoke appendicitis.
Due to enterobiosis caused by pinworms, negative changes occur in the processes of digestion and assimilation of food eaten by a person, the acidity of gastric juice decreases.
Many of the children exposed to these parasites show changes in the intestinal microbiocenosis.
The presence of pinworms in the body also involves a number of complications caused by their penetration into places besides the intestines. So, as a result of a large degree of infection or in connection with a specific individual reaction against the background of increased sensitivity to pinworm antigens, there is a chance of developing eosinophilic enterocolitis.
Getting into the female genital organs of pinworms, provoke vulvovaginitis, accompanied by a secondary infection of the urinary tract.Further migration of parasites to the pelvic organs is fraught with oophoritis and salpingitis.
Penetration of pinworms through the intestinal wall into the peritoneal cavity is extremely rare, which may be due to the development of peritonitis.
The consequences of pinworms are obviously capable of being the most unfavorable. But at the same time, the treatment of this disease does not present significant difficulties, being timely detected. Thus, its diagnosis and the adoption of necessary medical measures become relevant.
Diagnosis of pinworms based on the results of a conventional fecal analysis is untenable since it is not possible to determine the presence of these parasites. This is explained by the fact that their laying of eggs does not occur in the human intestine, but outside it, on the skin in the immediate vicinity of the anus. Thus, when the patient is expected to have enterobiosis provoked by pinworms, the main method of research is the imprint (scraping) of the skin in the anus in order to identify adult pinworms and eggs laid by them. To do this, use a special spatula moistened with a glycerin solution, or such a diagnostic action can be carried out according to the Graham method, in which an adhesive tape is used.
Finding females of adult individuals is often not difficult in ordinary living conditions. They can be seen in the stool immediately after the bowel movement is complete. To identify parasite eggs, a person is able to independently examine the skin area around the anus.
So, pinworms are diagnosed through a laboratory parasitological examination of a person, in relation to whom there is a suspicion that he is a carrier of such intestinal infection.
In the presence of parasites in the intestines in a child or an adult, a characteristic itching in the perineum appears, usually starting to gain intensity with the onset of evening time, allergic reactions are noted, appetite worsens, sleep is disturbed, apathetic state occurs, etc. Similar changes in the condition health can serve as the basis for being puzzled by finding out the objective cause of such negative phenomena and, as one of the diagnostic measures, conduct pinpoint analysis.
To establish an accurate diagnosis, it is advisable to use the method of microscopic examination. The material used for this analysis is obtained by scraping or imprinting an adhesive tape from a skin site in the perianal region, where female pinworms mainly lay their eggs. Based on the results obtained, their presence is ascertained, and therefore enterobiosis can be diagnosed. In order to ensure the maximum possible reliability of the diagnostic data, the analysis must be carried out for at least three consecutive days, or with an interval of one day. The rationale for this is the fact that pinworming of eggs does not occur daily.
On the day preceding such an analysis, the perineum of the child between the buttocks is not recommended to be smeared with greasy creams.
Pinworm analysis is adequate only when carried out in the indicated manner. This is due to the fact that these parasites cannot be detected using a routine stool analysis because the eggs inside the intestine are not laid.
Pinworms from among all the parasites that appear in the human intestines are the most non-dangerous, and therefore should not cause cause for alarm and no matter how much concern.
In many cases, pinworm treatment can be completely limited by the use of traditional medicine alone, and as for pharmacological preparations, as a rule, special anthelmintic agents are used for 2 to 3 courses with interruptions of several weeks, and at the end of each such course, a control analysis is done.
All therapeutic measures should be accompanied by strict adherence to hygiene rules, and therefore parents need to carefully monitor this child.
In a children's team, if any of them has undergone such an intestinal infection, the corresponding therapeutic measures are mandatory also applied to all others.
Oddly enough this sounds, but often the disease can pass spontaneously, even if you do not take any targeted treatment of pinworm.
By and large, all that is needed is to carefully observe basic hygiene rules.
As one of the effective ways to combat this kind of intestinal infection, without involving pharmacological drugs in the treatment process, a pinworm diet can be used.
Certain products that contribute to the expulsion of parasites are able to adequately replace drugs. This primarily implies what must be included in the diet, for example, mustard, horseradish, garlic, cayenne pepper, walnuts, pomegranate.
From the above list, garlic deserves special attention with all the justification. His beneficial effect has been repeatedly confirmed. You can use it during meals in the amount of 1 clove per day for three days in a row, repeating this course after one week. Another way to use garlic with pinworms is to make a special infusion with milk from it. To do this, with a glass of milk you need to boil a few cloves and leave to insist. The child needs to drink this infusion throughout the day and observe changes in his condition.
You can also prepare tincture from onions. This is done by grinding one large onion, and pouring alcohol in a ratio of 1: 1. After a week of exposure in a dark place, the obtained folk remedy against pinworms is ready for use.
A decoction of pumpkin seeds and crude oil of the first extraction will also be useful to include in the diet when infected with intestinal parasites. One glass is taken during the day before the morning meal, until the severity of symptoms begins to subside.
Banana has also proven itself in the composition of the antiparasitic diet.
Peel it must be dried, whether in the sun or in the dryer, and then grind. The resulting powder is mixed with half a glass of water, and such a solution is drunk in three doses a day before meals. This must be done within two days, controlling the state of feces.
Diet with pinworms can become one of the important factors contributing to the effective disposal of this parasitic lesion of the human intestine. And in some cases, like folk remedies, it can be a justifiable alternative to the use of chemicals, or go in addition to the prescribed therapy with medications.
Pinworm prevention as one of its main tasks has the need to ensure all factors that exclude or minimize the possibility of infection or self-infection. In this regard, the basic requirement is to follow sanitary-hygienic rules.
Parents should cut their nails briefly for young children, wash their hands with soap, and do morning and evening washings with soap.Before going to bed, you need to wear dense underwear for the child, which should be ironed in the morning with a hot iron. After cleaning and washing the child’s night pot should be rinsed with boiling water.
If the child has been infected with pinworms, in this case, all family members, without exception, must undergo antiparasitic treatment at the same time, and in the kindergartens, the entire children’s team, educators and maintenance staff.
The premises should be cleaned regularly on a wet basis.
In conditions of increased risk of infection, such as being a child in kindergarten, in a summer camp, etc., it is necessary to change underwear every day, boil it and iron it.
After a successful cure for pinworms, a person is prescribed dispensary registration for a month and a half. The degree of effectiveness of the implemented therapeutic measures is evaluated in a 3-week time period, starting from the 2nd week after completion of treatment. Recovery is detected if three times with a break from 1 to 2 days in the perianal scraping of eggs is not detected.
As you can see, pinworm prevention mainly means protecting a person from infection with intestinal parasites, and when the disease is defeated, help prevent re-infection, autoinvasion.
You can find a fairly large number of the most diverse and diverse interpretations regarding what pinworms dream of. Dream Interpretations offer many possible interpretations of such a dream.
So, to see a pinworm in a dream can act as a prediction that in the very foreseeable future the onset of changes in personal life is coming.
Pinworm during sleep can serve as a harbinger of the appearance of a person, having connected his life with which it will become possible to find a new meaning and experience new bright feelings. On the other hand, for a woman, such a dream can serve as a warning that the attention given to her by a man in this expected new meeting will be ambiguous and ambiguous.
If a man dreams of pinworms, this predicts that he will find one that will bring comfort to his house and become a good hostess.
When there is a presence of people in a dream together with a pinworm, the possibility is not ruled out that soon it will happen to get to a celebration of a wedding or in connection with a magnificent celebration of a birthday, anniversary. A dream with a pinworm and some animals suggests a possible meeting with a friend or girlfriend who have not been seen for a long time.
Pinworms in a dream in large numbers speak of victory over the machinations of ill-wishers. To see someone with pinworm disease promises life at someone else's expense. When a child suffers from pinworms in a dream, this indicates excessive anxiety and excessive custody of his child.
Thus, out of the whole set of versions of what pinworms dream of, we examined a certain average, generalized definition of this dream.
Infection with worms (helminths), can a person become infected?
In our time, such a problem as infection with worms is very relevant. How they are transmitted to an adult, how many days the incubation period lasts, what possible ways for helminths to enter the body are characteristic of children, how the invasion occurs and how dangerous it is - these are just a small part of the questions people ask about these simplest parasitic worms. To understand all this, you should start with the simplest question. How does a person become infected with helminths? The opinion of most people that worms can only appear if personal hygiene rules are not followed is completely unfounded. There are many ways to defeat them, and without knowing them it is difficult enough to insure yourself against the invasion of these parasites.Here are just a few of the most common ways that helminths can enter the human body:
- Through dirty hands and unwashed vegetables or fruits,
- When using low-quality or poorly heat-treated meat and fish products,
- When swimming in open water and in direct contact with contaminated soil, signs of infection with worms may also appear.
But not all people are at risk. The fact is that uninvited guests in the adult's body expect a triple protective barrier: enzymes contained in the oral cavity, in saliva, acidic gastric juice and local intestinal immunity. Proceeding from this, it follows that helminth eggs can develop in sexually mature individuals only in weakened organisms in which these barriers do not work.
The situation is much more serious in the case when the infection occurs with the worms of the child. In children, due to the underdevelopment of the digestive system, these barriers are absent until a certain age. That is why outbreaks of helminthic infestations in children's groups are so frequent. To the parents' questions about how many days after helminth eggs enter the child’s body before the first signs of the disease appear, experts answer that the transformation of the larva into a mature individual occurs very quickly. This is the danger of the helminthiasis epidemic in children's groups.
Possible ways of infection with worms
To completely protect yourself from the appearance of this ailment, you need knowledge about how parasites can penetrate the body. This will help to take the necessary safety measures and reduce the risk of infection with worms to a minimum. According to many, helminthiasis can easily be picked up by talking with pets, swimming in the pool or kissing with someone who has this problem. Is it really so? Let's look at what is a myth and what is reality:
- The most correct is the opinion that worms from pets are transmitted to people. This method of penetration of parasites into the body can be called the most common. This is a contact-household type of infection. But it should be borne in mind that not all helminths living in animals can be dangerous to humans. Most of them can only parasitize in pets. But there are also helminthic infestations that can easily be infected from pets. The most severe and difficult to cure of them are toxocariasis, hookworm infection and echinococcosis. But this is not a reason to get rid of a furry pet. In order for parasite eggs not to be transmitted to people, it is enough to follow the necessary preventive safety measures and conduct a deworming procedure for a four-legged friend every 3-4 months,
- Infection with worms through a kiss. This route of penetration of helminths into the body is also called contact-household, but it is unlikely. Ascarids are most often transmitted through saliva from a sick person. But their development cycle is characterized by the fact that helminth eggs in saliva are not dangerous, since they must ripen within 2 weeks in the environment before development into an adult. Only after that, once in the body with any food, they can harm a person. Infection with worms through a kiss is possible only if one of the partners just ate food with helminth larvae and they are in the oral cavity. In order to avoid infection with worms through kisses, it is enough to follow appropriate personal hygiene measures. It should also be borne in mind that the saliva of a healthy adult contains certain enzymes that serve as one of the protective barriers that prevent the penetration of helminths into the body,
- Often they ask about whether it is possible to get worms in the pool? This is an active way for parasites to appear in humans through direct contact with soil or water, called active (percutaneous). With it, the parasite larvae penetrate the mucous membranes or the skin while swimming in open water or walking barefoot. But infection with worms in pools is just a myth. Although there is an opinion that in such places it is easy to pick up this ailment, you should not believe it. This option is completely impossible. The point here is that not a single person will be allowed to swim in the pool without a special medical certificate stating that he is not infected with worms. In addition, in all pools, water and the premises are regularly cleaned from possible parasites and infections.
The most likely methods of infection with worms will be alimentary, in which the patient does not follow the rules of personal hygiene, and also uses poor-quality food or untreated water, which contains helminth larvae, and transmissible, which is characterized by the fact that the eggs of parasitic worms are transmitted through bloodsucking insects.
Symptoms of worm infection in adults
Symptoms will depend on how the helminth entered the body, their quantity and the degree of adaptation of the patient. In case of infection with worms, the signs corresponding to the disease will appear in the very near future. As a rule, the first symptoms occur within a few days, but due to the fact that these parasitic creatures are cunning enough, the manifestation of helminths is difficult to recognize. They disguise themselves as a large number of the most common diseases. In order to consult a doctor in a timely manner, undergo the necessary diagnostics and begin treatment, it is important to know what symptoms may be present in this case. Experts recommend paying attention to the following alarming signs that appear first:
- Pain in joints and muscles. They occur a few days after the infection with worms. This symptom is associated with the movement of the parasite through the body in search of the most convenient places for life,
- And such a sign as increased nervousness may indicate that parasites have settled in the patient's body. Their waste products and toxic substances contribute to the constant irritation of the central nervous system, causing anxiety, anxiety and depression,
- Unpleasant symptoms of infection with worms - disruption of the intestines. Constipation or diarrhea almost always occurs after the incubation period has passed and the parasite larvae have become sexually mature individuals.
You should also pay attention to chronic fatigue, sleep disturbances, allergic reactions and frequent inflammatory diseases. All of them may indicate the possible development of helminthiasis.
In the same case, when they are interested in what are the symptoms of worm infection in children, experts recommend paying attention to the itching in the anus of the child, its excessive activity, increased salivation, craving for sweets, drowsiness and lethargy. All this symptomatology indicates that uninvited guests have settled in the child's body.
Helminthiasis treatment and prevention of worm infection
In the event that there is a suspicion that the parasites have entered the body or several alarming symptoms have appeared, urgent medical measures must be taken to expel the parasites while they have an incubation period and they have not turned into mature individuals that lay eggs in large quantities. All therapeutic measures in this case should be prescribed by a specialist based on the type of worms, the infection of which occurred. Also, in order to avoid infection with worms, it is necessary to adhere to certain preventive safety measures:
- Pet contact with infants should be limited.
- You can’t allow pets to lick their faces, and you should not constantly kiss them on the nose,
- After talking with them, as well as visiting public places where worms can be transmitted, wash your hands thoroughly with antibacterial or laundry soap. This will reduce the risk of helminth infections,
- Also, special attention should be paid to the acquisition and preparation of meat products - the most common sources of eggs and larvae of parasitic worms.
Very often you can hear the question of what to do if a baby is infected with worms. This rarely happens, but it is a very serious problem. After several days of the incubation period, the parasites turn into sexually mature worms, which suck all the accumulated nutrients in infants. It is quite difficult to get rid of the baby from them, therefore all necessary preventive measures should be taken so that the baby does not become infected with worms.
Can nausea from worms (helminths)?
Why, in the case when a person is constantly sick, do worms become the first suspects of such symptoms? This is due to the fact that helminths that enter the body develop into sexually mature individuals, and in the process of their life they release a large amount of toxins that poison a person. As a result, in addition to reducing or increasing appetite, constant headaches and apathy in a patient, regardless of age, the functioning of the digestive tract is disrupted. Signs of worms in the gastrointestinal tract are expressed in constant nausea, heartburn, bloating, rumbling and bubbling in the stomach, flatulence. Pain, stool and vomiting may also occur. How is this dangerous? Such symptoms can indicate the occurrence of intestinal obstruction, which is considered one of the usual consequences of ignored helminthiasis. In order to fully understand the causes of these negative signs when infected with parasites, each of them should be considered in more detail:
- Nausea and rumbling in the stomach with worms is caused not as the root cause, but because they provoke the development of inflammatory processes in the intestines, dysbiosis, etc. This, in turn, leads to excessive gas formation and, as a result, the appearance of symptoms similar to irritated intestines,
- Heartburn with worms in humans occurs as a protective function of the body. The stomach begins to produce more and more gastric juice, which has an acidic environment in which parasites die. Excessive amounts of it are released into the esophagus, causing heartburn and a state of nausea. So it turns out that if heartburn persecutes a person constantly, despite the correct lifestyle and nutrition, you should check for parasites,
- Cause worms and flatulence. It, as well as bloating, is a consequence of invasion. Bloating and flatulence during helminths are provoked by excessive gas formation, which occurs against the background of inflammatory processes that have arisen due to growing and multiplying parasites.
In the case when such signs of worms as nausea and bloating, as well as all other manifestations of irritated intestines, are precisely the result of parasites colonizing the digestive organs, it is impossible to get rid of them only using symptomatic treatment. First of all, parasites should be destroyed.
Sick from worms, what should I do?
For any manifestations of intestinal dyspepsia, you should first consult a doctor to find out the true cause of their occurrence. In the event that the diagnostic tests performed with accuracy showed that the cause of the negative manifestations lies precisely in the worms, appropriate therapeutic measures should be taken to destroy them.But appointing yourself a treatment course yourself is strictly not recommended. All drugs designed to destroy parasites are very toxic and can increase nausea attacks.
The specialist will prescribe exactly those drugs that are intended to destroy a certain type of worms, which provoked the appearance of bloating and boiling in the stomach, flatulence, and other dyspeptic phenomena. If the course of admission and all the doctor’s prescriptions are followed exactly, you can be sure that nausea attacks caused by the toxicity of the drug will not follow. In addition, you can try to get rid of nausea and worms by folk remedies. Ground pumpkin seeds and crushed garlic with milk proved to be very good. Also, one should not forget that after the therapeutic course it is necessary to restore the intestinal microflora disturbed by parasitic worms.
Symptoms of helminthic invasion
A person can detect signs of helminthic invasion in himself several weeks, months after the infection has occurred. Many types of worms are capable of conducting parasitic activities for years without declaring themselves. Signs of helminthiasis are:
- Sudden weight loss or its increase.
- Digestive disorders (constipation, bloating, diarrhea).
- Abdominal pain (occurs in an advanced stage).
- Constant feeling of tiredness, weakness.
- A slight increase in body temperature.
- Frequent headaches, sleep disturbances, loss of appetite.
- Nervousness, irritability.
- Allergic reactions, skin rashes.
- A cough that is not a result of a cold.
In the presence of such symptoms, it is necessary to be examined for worms and, in the case of a positive diagnosis, undergo a course of therapy.
Methods for detecting parasitic infections include: feces for eggs of worms, a blood test to detect antibodies, scraping for enterobiosis. Given that the life cycle of parasites implies periods when eggs in the provided biomaterial may be absent, it is necessary to be re-examined after 2 weeks.
Each type of helminth has its own developmental features. The duration of the incubation period of worms in humans depends on their state of health.
Infection occurs as a result of the entry of parasite eggs into the body through contaminated vegetables, berries, fruits, water, if hygiene rules are not followed. Adult individuals are long worms up to 40 cm in size. During an invasion, rashes on the skin appear, dizziness, weakness, cough, shortness of breath appear, the temperature sometimes rises to 40 ° C. The incubation period is from 6 to 8 weeks, in children a little less. As the number of worms in the body increases, the symptoms intensify. Digestive disorders, insomnia, and vomiting are added to them.
Pinworm incubation period
This type of parasite is more common in children, causing enterobiosis. The worm is very small (up to 1 cm), many of them are activated at night. The female gets to the surface, laying eggs in folds near the anus. Before the onset of the first symptoms, usually 12-15 days pass after infection. The patient begins to experience severe itching in the anal area, perineum. There is irritability, nervousness, sleep disturbance.
When are other helminths detected?
The time of their hidden activity depends on what worms in the human body have settled. Signs of infection with whipworms appear after a sufficiently large number of parasites accumulate in the intestine. This happens after 1–1.5 months from the moment of infection. Symptoms of intestinal acne are observed 0.5–1 months after invasion. Approximately the same incubation period in trematodes continues. For a longer time, the wide ribbon, the hookworm, do not manifest themselves for up to two months.When infected with a dwarf tapeworm, clinical manifestations are detected after a week or two, depending on how large the number of worms in the body is.
The life span of parasites
The life cycle of different types of helminths has differences. Tapeworms develop from an egg where a larva forms. Once in the body of the intermediate host, it turns into a small bubble (Finn). Getting at this stage in the human digestive tract, the larva attaches to the intestinal mucosa and, after a certain time, an adult is formed from it. After fertilization, the female begins to lay eggs that go out with fecal matter.
How many worms live in the body of their final owner - so much time and feed at his expense, sucking out all the useful substances.
Nematodes (roundworms) penetrate the victim’s gastrointestinal tract from the soil. Their development begins in the intestine, then after a while the parasites migrate with the bloodstream to all organs and systems. Life expectancy may be at least a year. A sexually mature worm for laying eggs returns to the intestines, after which it dies. In soil, adults can live up to a month. How many eggs live depends on the type of helminths. Pinworms, they persist up to seven years.
The development of trematodes (flatworms) requires a change of several hosts. The eggs in the water are swallowed by the mollusk, inside of which the embryo forms. Having penetrated the human body with water or while eating fish, the worms continue to develop in the intestines, as well as in other organs.
Nematodes can live in a person for years. The existence of trematodes within the host is limited to two years. Usually they cause significant inconvenience, as a result of which they are quickly detected and after taking appropriate measures, their life ends.
Outside the human body, eggs can stay for many years, waiting for their master, perfectly surviving any weather conditions, environmental influences.
Helminthic invasion treatment
Infection with parasites is a fairly common phenomenon. In some cases, the larvae, once in the human body, stop further development and hatch with feces without any danger. If you suspect the presence of adult sexually mature individuals that are able to breed, you need to do treatment. The presence of helminths in the body can lead to serious health problems. Allocating toxic substances in the course of their life, worms can cause severe intoxication. The parasite in the intestine takes the bulk of the nutrients, which leads to depletion of the body, lower immune defense, resulting in all kinds of chronic diseases. Hematopoiesis is violated, vascular permeability increases, hormonal disruptions occur. The reproduction of parasites can be tumor processes. Symptoms indicating the presence of helminthiasis are a serious reason to contact a medical institution.
After the examination, which allows you to determine the type of helminths and the degree of invasion, the doctor prescribes a therapeutic course, including the use of medications in combination with a certain diet. Treatment takes a considerable period. Anthelmintic agents are effective only against adults and have no effect on larvae. We have to repeat taking the drug after 3 weeks, until the grown worms have reached puberty and began to lay their eggs.
With helminthic invasion, which is difficult to treat, a special diet is prescribed, in which there are no products attractive for worms.
Any anthelmintic drugs are highly toxic. In addition, with the mass death of parasites, decay products can cause severe intoxication in a patient.Therefore, it is recommended to get rid of worms under the supervision of a doctor. Additionally, he can prescribe a cleansing enema, immunomodulating agents to increase the body's resistance. At the end of the course of treatment, a vitamin-mineral complex is taken.
Employees of children's institutions, pet owners, as well as people whose activities are related to animals, contaminated water, soil, should be periodically examined for helminthiasis and prevented. An effective action against worms is possessed by some products - onions, garlic, pumpkin seeds. They are recommended to be included in the diet. Compliance with hygiene rules will help to avoid infection.
Worms in humans - how they look
Awareness of possible helminthic invasion is of great diagnostic value. No less important is the knowledge of how worms look in humans. This will help to avoid possible complications and identify worms in humans in the early stages.
Most often, pinworms and roundworms are found. Their appearance resembles a little ordinary white worm. Their length can vary from 20 to 40 cm. The body is thin and oblong. There are also more large parasites - the tape is wide. It looks like a tape (due to its flat body). the length of such a worm can reach several meters.
Helminth classification - photo
What types of worms do humans have? Two types of parasites can be distinguished (depending on localization in the body): luminal and tissue.
- Tissue - these are helminths that prefer to live in the parenchyma of organs (liver, pancreas, muscles, brain matter, lung tissue, and so on). Because the disease can have several names:
- with lung damage - paragonimiasis,
- liver - echinococcosis,
- brain - cysticercosis,
- lymph nodes - filariasis.
- Enlightened - worms live mainly in the intestinal lumen. Such helminths include hookworms, roundworms, dwarf tapeworm, bovine tapeworm, whipworm, wide tape, pinworms and others.
Stages of the development of the disease
- Helminth is in the egg stage. Before entering the human body, the helminth must enter the oral cavity. For this, an adult lays eggs. Infection of a person occurs precisely when eggs of worms enter the oral cavity.
- The second stage - the larva leaves the egg. Immediately after the egg enters the gastrointestinal tract, a larva hatches from it. Her task is to migrate throughout the body in search of an ideal habitat. Having reached its destination, the larva continues its growth and development, and turns into an adult.
- The third stage - helminth becomes an adult, which again can lay eggs.
It is interesting to know that all helminths tend to travel through the human body during the development and transition from one stage to another. An exception is pinworm, which all stages pass in the intestinal system.
Causes of helminth infections
A very fair question arises - where do worms come from in humans? The thing is that infection occurs due to non-compliance with hygiene rules. For example, a person may be infected with roundworm due to eating unwashed foods. This, above all, applies to vegetables and fruits that grow on the ground and directly contact with it. The fact is that ascaris eggs mature in the soil, and when they come in contact with agricultural products, they are seeded.
Human Worm Treatment
Many who have encountered such a disease are interested in the question - how to remove worms in humans. In the acute period of the disease, it is very important to carry out detoxification and desensitization procedures. To suppress an allergic reaction, it will be advisable to prescribe antihistamines: Claritin, Suprastin, and so on.
To date, preparations for worms in humans are presented in a huge assortment. Among them, high-performance drugs should be highlighted:
- Bactefort and others.
Tablets from worms in humans, effective in combating roundworms that live in the intestinal lumen:
For successful treatment, deworming of the whole family should be carried out, hygiene rules should be followed, and the procedure should be repeated in two weeks.
Review No. 1
I had to face helminthiasis. Although they say. What more often children get sick, but they also amaze adults. I also had a rash, the whole body was terribly itchy. The simplest analysis took place - I passed the feces to the worm eggs and the diagnosis was confirmed. My doctor prescribed Bactefort.
After that, I also strictly followed the rules of personal hygiene. Suprastin helped me from allergic rashes, and very quickly. After treatment, I re-took Vormil. Now nothing bothers, but I was tormented by these worms.
Anastasia, 32 years old - Moscow
Review No. 2
We were recently at a scheduled appointment with a doctor (my daughter was two years old and had to be tested). At the next appointment, we were “dumbfounded” by the news that worm eggs, roundworms, were found in our daughter. Of course, my wife and I were upset, because we overlooked the child. It's hard to fight the habit of sticking fingers in your mouth! Our pediatrician prescribed us a drug called Nemazole. This is a suspension that should be taken four times in total.
A single dosage is 5 ml (inside the package there was a measured spoon), 1 measured spoon 1 time per day. The bottle of the drug itself was 20 ml (that is, everything had to be drunk for the course). The cost is not cheap - 150 rubles per package. The doctor and we prescribed with his wife the anthelmintic drug Vormil, for prevention. By the way, it costs a lot less (35 rubles). The child after the drug had loose stools. However, analyzes show. With worms we said goodbye. Medications help quickly. It is very pleasing. I hope so. We will not encounter such a problem anymore.