The overall health of a person depends on the quality of the digestive system. It is the organs of the digestive tract that work so that the food eaten is broken down into nutrients and enters the bloodstream for further use. In inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), the process of digestion and absorption is disrupted, which can lead to serious consequences and affect the functioning of other organs. Is it possible to notice the pathology in time and what to do next?
Causes of the disease
Inflammation can occur in the large or small intestine. In this case, the integrity of the mucous membrane and the normal functioning of the organ are violated. To cause damage to the upper layer and provoke the active production of inflammatory mediators can:
- Infectious process, which appeared as a result of the entry of pathogenic viruses and bacteria.
- Helminthic invasion.
- Circulatory disorders,
- Long-term use of antibiotics.
- Autoimmune diseases, as a result of which the body perceives its own cells as foreign and begins to fight them.
- Genetic predisposition.
- Improper nutrition.
With any etiology, the mechanism of inflammation is the same. The death of cells of the intestinal mucosa after the action of a damaging factor leads to increased blood supply to this area and the release of biologically active mediators. As a result, pain occurs, the secretory function of the organ and the process of absorption of nutrients are disrupted.
Symptoms of Bowel Inflammation
The problem affects people of different ages and gender. Most manifestations in this case may be similar, since there are characteristic signs for the entire group of intestinal diseases. However, depending on the specific localization of the inflammatory process, the course of the disease and symptoms often have their own characteristics.
This is how a diseased intestine looks at a colonoscopy.
There are thin and thick intestines. The first consists of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum. The second - from the cecum, colon and rectum. A disease of any area affects the work of the entire digestive system and leads to the appearance of common characteristic symptoms:
- Pain. It can have different localization and intensity, however, it always accompanies the inflammatory process in the digestive tract. With pathologies of the small intestine, discomfort is more often pulling and felt in the navel, with damage to the lower parts, the person feels bursting pain and relief after defecation.
- Violations of the stool. Diarrhea more often 4 times a day occurs with problems with the small intestine and usually immediately prompt the patient to think about problems with the digestive tract. Fecal masses may include foam or pieces of undigested food, which is a diagnostic criterion for a doctor. Diseases of the large intestine are often accompanied by constipation, where blood or mucus is observed along with excrement.
- Metabolic disorders. They arise as a result of incomplete splitting of food and its poor absorption. The patient may experience a decrease in body weight, anemia, dry skin, hemorrhages, cracks in the corners of the mouth, women experience malfunctions in the menstrual cycle.
- Flatulence. May appear with problems in any part of the intestine. It is dangerous in that it provokes pneumatosis, which at advanced stages threatens the patient's life.
Features of inflammation
In addition to the general signs characteristic of the defeat of any part of the intestine, the patient may have specific symptoms of inflammation.
With duodenitis, the problem occurs on the mucosa of the duodenum and is often combined with diseases of the stomach. Of the clinical manifestations in humans, increased salivation, a feeling of fullness in the abdomen are added, and temperature and pressure increase. Often this all happens against the background of general weakness and irritability. In the absence of timely treatment, pathology can lead to erosion and ulcers, in which symptoms such as dizziness, black stools, collapse are added.
Inflammation in the rectum is called proctitis and is usually caused by pathogens or constipation. The pain in this case is mild and localized in the anus. The temperature of the body may not increase, and as a specific symptom, excretion of mucus, blood or pus during bowel movement can be considered.
The inflamed sigmoid colon often causes intense spastic pains on the left ileal region, which can give to the lower back and leg. Frequent fetid stools are accompanied by constant rumbling and bloating. If the patient is sick, then after vomiting, relief does not occur. For pathology in this area of the intestine, signs of general intoxication are characteristic - temperature, weakness, pallor.
Inflammation of the cecum can resemble the symptoms of appendicitis, therefore, requires a quick diagnosis and examination by a specialist. The condition is dangerous in that the pathological process often spreads to surrounding tissues or lymph nodes, as a result of which the patient requires surgical intervention. The problem in this part of the intestine usually has an acute course and is characterized by cutting pain in the right abdomen, enlarged organ size, nausea without vomiting, bloating and impaired stool. Discomfort occurs a few hours after eating.
Changes in the mucosa of the large intestine are quite common. Colitis provokes infections, intoxications, parasites. In addition, the disease can be of secondary origin, that is, be a consequence of problems with other organs of the digestive system (pancreatitis, cholecystitis, gastritis). Of the characteristic symptoms, mucus secretion with feces, bloating, painful bowel movements can be noted. On examination, edema and thickening of the affected area, minor hemorrhages or erosion are diagnosed.
The duration and speed of the onset of the disease are:
- Spicy. Inflammation develops within a month. Its manifestations are quite pronounced and reduce the quality of life of the patient.
- Chronic In adults, symptoms occur slowly, they are more erased. Patients may not feel much discomfort and consider malfunctioning of the digestive tract the norm.
Doctors have increasingly been diagnosed with irritable bowel syndrome. However, this condition is not fully understood. There are suggestions that it is stressful in nature and can easily be eliminated.
It will not work to treat the intestines with universal remedies. First you need to find out where the pathology arose, and what reason provoked it. The results of such tests and examinations will help the doctor:
- Clinical indicators of blood - the values of ESR and leukocytes are important, which may indicate inflammation or an infectious process.
- Coprogram - allows you to identify abnormal inclusions in the feces, draw conclusions about the functioning of the digestive tract and the number of enzymes.
- Colonoscopy is an examination of the intestinal mucosa that helps determine the location of the problem.
- Bacteriological seeding. With an infectious etiology, the results of this analysis will help you choose the right treatment for intestinal inflammation with antibacterial drugs.
- FEGDS is a very unpleasant sensation, but not a painful examination of the stomach and duodenum with a tube with a camera. This method allows you to take a sample for histology.
- Endoscopy video capsule. A modern and informative way to study the condition of all parts of the digestive tract. Data from the swallowed element is reflected on the computer during the day.
Drug treatment has several directions. The drugs in each of them are selected based on the localization of inflammation and the symptoms that concern the patient.
Etiotropic therapy is aimed at eliminating the root cause. When identifying the bacterial flora, antibiotics are prescribed, with rotavirus - sorbents and Regidron. For some infections and parasitic infestations, doctors prescribe drugs based on metronidazole.
Pathogenetic treatment involves stopping the mechanism of inflammation, creating functional rest to the body. For this, medicines of the NSAID group and enzymes are used.
Symptomatic therapy is carried out in order to alleviate the patient's condition and relieve discomfort. For this, antispasmodics and painkillers are used, as well as simethicones to reduce gas formation in the intestines. In case of damage to the rectum, candles with a healing effect can be used.
A general rule in the treatment of any intestinal disease is to follow a diet and healthy lifestyle. Nutrition should be selected in such a way as to reduce the load on the irritated digestive organs and accelerate the restoration of their mucous membranes. Preference is given to lean meats, dairy products, vegetables and fruits in any form. Of the cooking methods, stewing or cooking is recommended. The main condition is a constant diet.
Treatment with folk remedies is justified in chronic pathologies, since the acute process can only be cured with medication. The advantage of natural recipes is that they are inexpensive and completely safe. Many plants exhibit simultaneously several properties that are useful for intestinal inflammation. For example, chamomile has an astringent, antiseptic and wound healing effect.
For a positive effect, it is recommended to drink folk remedies for a long time and regularly. The following recipes are popular:
- A mixture of medicinal raw materials (chamomile, cumin, fennel) is poured with boiling water and filtered. It is necessary to treat the esophagus and intestines with a similar infusion three times a day after meals.
- To reduce the acidity of the stomach, which often causes pathological conditions of the gastrointestinal tract, herbs such as linden, marshmallow, chamomile, and elecampane are capable of reducing.
- The astringent and anti-inflammatory effect of oak bark well removes unpleasant manifestations in the patient. A decoction is prepared from the plant, for which the raw material is poured with a liter of water, boiled and filtered. It is recommended to take half a glass up to 6 times a day.
- To prevent the intestines from becoming inflamed, before eating, you need to drink a mixture of plantain juice and honey.
- Olive oil is considered a natural laxative. Take 1 tablespoon every morning.
To prevent intestinal problems or to increase the period of remission, you can use:
- Diets. With mild pathologies, proper nutrition can permanently eliminate the problem. Constipation has an extremely negative effect on intestinal health and may be the root cause of the inflammatory process. A diet rich in dietary fiber can easily and economically eliminate the existing problem. Regular emptying is very important. Some patients use a special enema warmer to flush out toxins.
- Active lifestyle. Moderate physical activity increases blood circulation in the tissues of all organs, and also reduces the likelihood of internal hemorrhoids and intestinal atony.
- Good hygiene. It must be remembered that many microbes and parasites enter the human body through the fecal-oral route. Always wash your hands after the street and before eating.
If the inflammatory process in the intestine is left unattended, it can lead to such complications:
- Nutrient deficiency, which will negatively affect the work of other internal organs.
- Peritonitis - the spread of inflammation in the abdominal cavity.
- An imbalance in the intestinal and vaginal flora of a woman, as well as thrush.
Malfunctions of the digestive tract can lead to changes in the overall health and well-being of a person. Lack of nutrients makes patients unable to resist other diseases, therefore, for any pain or warning symptoms, it is very important to consult a doctor in a timely manner.
Why the intestines become inflamed - the reasons
To begin with, it should be noted that intestinal inflammation is a general term. Various departments can become inflamed, and each such pathological condition has a specific diagnosis and treatment.
The following factors can precede the development of inflammation:
- Infection of various nature. Both bacteria and viruses or protozoa can cause the disease. Common pathogens include dysentery amoeba, rotavirus, E. coli, Salmonella or bacteria of the genus Shigella.
- The presence of helminths in the digestive tract. Their toxins have a destructive effect on intestinal cells.
- Autoimmune diseases. Disturbances in the immune system can trigger the production of specific antibodies that will recognize foreign intestinal epithelial cells. Accordingly, their destruction will occur. The cause of the pathological condition may be Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis.
- Predisposition. Those or other violations in the work of the gastrointestinal tract can be inherited. As a rule, such pathologies are not treatable, but some supportive therapy or a special diet is possible.
- Improper diet or abuse of certain foods. Frequent overeating or malnutrition can negatively affect digestion. The use of spicy or fatty foods can trigger the development of pathological conditions in different parts of the intestine.
- Violation of blood flow in the intestines. It occurs due to the development of atherosclerosis or narrowing of the lumen of the artery. This leads to necrosis of the cells of the mucosa.
- Violation of the microbiota. In the intestinal tract are constantly living microorganisms that contribute to digestion. But with an increase in the number of certain types of bacteria that are considered conditionally pathogenic, an inflammatory process can begin.
- Long-term drug treatment. Some medicines negatively affect the gastrointestinal mucosa.
- Severe food poisoning or poisoning by toxic substances.
- Overweight. It's no secret that excess weight appears or causes hormonal imbalances. Improper production of enzymes leads to various diseases that can negatively affect the digestive system.
- Irradiation with high doses of radiation. Ionizing radiation causes the death of body cells, including cells of the intestinal mucosa.
- Some diseases of the gastrointestinal tract: biliary duct dyskinesia, hepatitis, pancreatitis, gastritis and others.
With inflammation, necrosis of intestinal cells occurs, as a result of which hyperemia develops (increased blood supply), and pain appears. Accordingly, the affected area cannot fulfill its function: to produce enzymes and absorb nutrients.
In the small intestine, 3 sections are distinguished:
- Duodenum. This is the initial section of the intestine that goes after the stomach. Its length is approximately 12 finger diameters. Hence the name of the department.
- Jejunum. It is located after the duodenum and forms the middle section of the small intestine. Its name is due to the fact that during the autopsy this body was empty.
- Ileum.This is the last part of the small intestine, passing in the ileum to the cecum.
Inflamed can be one department or several. Inflammation of the entire small intestine is called enteritis.
Enteritis can occur in a latent form, and exacerbated by the use of alcoholic beverages or an improper diet. Most often, such a pathology develops as a result of bacterial infections: salmonellosis or cholera. Also, enteritis can accompany some diseases of the gastrointestinal tract: pancreatitis, hepatitis or cholecystitis. If you do not take any treatment, the disease can go into a chronic stage, which will lead to atrophy of the small intestine.
Inflammation of the duodenum is called duodenitis. With the development of inflammation of the upper intestine, in this case, the symptoms are very similar to peptic ulcer. When the lower part is affected, the signs of the disease resemble cholecystitis, as well as pancreatitis.
Duodenitis is accompanied by the following symptoms:
- severe abdominal pain (in the stomach)
Unity, or inflammation of the jejunum, is accompanied by enteric insufficiency, intoxication, severe abdominal pain, and diarrhea. Most often, a unit develops along with duodenitis or ileitis. As a separate disease, it occurs very rarely.
During the inflammatory process, a noticeable shortening of the villous epithelium occurs, which significantly reduces the absorption area of nutrients. It is also accompanied by significant swelling, smoothing of the epithelium, which entails atrophy.
NOTE! It is quite difficult to establish a unit, this is due to the fact that all the symptoms, as well as histological indicators, are very similar to celiac disease or lactase deficiency.
Briefly about the anatomy and physiology of the intestine
The intestine has several vital functions:
- digestion of food coming from the stomach - digestion with digestive enzymes into digestible elements,
- absorption of nutrients into the blood,
- the movement of food masses,
- secretion of certain hormones and immunological protection,
- removal of digestive waste and toxins from the body.
The intestines in humans are represented by two sections: thick and thin.
The small intestine is located in the central parts of the abdominal cavity. It starts from the pylorus and ends with the ileocecal valve, which connects the small intestine to the large.
The composition of the small intestine has three sections: the duodenum, jejunum and ileum, which are involved in all stages of digestion, including absorption and movement of food.
It is in the small intestine that enzymes are produced that, together with the juice of the pancreas and bile, contribute to the breakdown of food into separate components.
The large intestine is the final part of the digestive tract, the lower part of the intestine, in which water is mainly absorbed and formed stool is formed from the food slurry (chyme).
In the structure of the colon, three departments are also distinguished:
- cecum with a vermiform appendix (appendix),
- colon surrounding the abdominal cavity,
- straight, ending with the anal canal and anus.
The intestines are densely populated with microorganisms. There live more than 500 different species. The gastrointestinal tract and the health of the whole organism depend to a large extent on the composition of microflora.
Causes of inflammatory bowel disease in adults
Inflammation of the intestine is a collective term that characterizes the presence of an inflammatory process in the mucous membrane of one or more of its departments.
Various factors can lead to malfunctions of the small and large intestines and its inflammation:
- the presence of other diseases of the digestive system (gastritis, pancreatitis),
- intestinal infections - inflammation is caused by bacteria (E. coli, Salmonella, Shigella), viruses (rotavirus) or protozoa (amoebic dysentery),
- taking certain medications (for example, prolonged and uncontrolled antibacterial therapy can disrupt the microflora, and the predominance of opportunistic flora leads to inflammatory processes in the mucous membrane),
- eating foods that irritate the gastrointestinal mucosa (sour, smoked, spicy, fried),
- lack of vitamins and minerals,
- bad habits,
- lack of exercise
Some factors, such as genetic predisposition, are not dependent on humans, and there is no way to eliminate them. On the other: nutrition, lifestyle - it is able to influence.
Statistics say that certain diseases of the digestive system are present in 90% of the population of developed countries. So, inflammatory bowel diseases, which include Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, are diagnosed in approximately 200 people out of 100,000 examined. Mostly they are affected by the adult population. Men and women get sick at about the same frequency.
Common signs of diseases of the colon and small intestine
All symptoms of bowel disease can be divided into several groups. The main ones are pain and stool disorders (diarrhea, constipation, or a combination thereof).
Also, among the signs of pathologies, increased gas formation (flatulence), appetite disorder, the presence of pathological impurities (blood, mucus) in the feces, vomiting, weight loss, anemia, and an increase in body temperature are noted. These symptoms are different in the defeat of different parts of the intestine.
Pain with intestinal pathologies can have a different nature, features, localization, intensity. Depending on the cause of the occurrence, there is or is no connection between the manifestation of pain and meals, bowel movements, etc.
So, for diseases of the small intestine, quite severe pains in the navel are characteristic. They can have a pulling, aching character. With cramping, patients experience intestinal colic.
For diseases of the large intestine, dull, bursting pains in the ileal region (right or left) are typical. They weaken or disappear after defecation, gas discharge. There is no clear connection between pain and eating.
Diarrhea or constipation
An upset stomach is accompanied by inflammatory processes in any part of the intestine. It is customary to talk about diarrhea when the frequency of stool exceeds 3-4 times a day.
Abundant liquid feces is a particularly characteristic symptom of pathologies of the small intestine. Foam, particles of undigested food may be present in the feces.
Inflammation of the large intestine is often accompanied by a tendency to constipation. Liquid fecal discharge is less common, mainly during the exacerbation period.
Increased flatulence, a feeling of fullness in the abdomen, rumbling, bloating, rapid gas discharge can occur in diseases of any part of the intestine - both large and thin.
Symptoms usually worsen in the evening. At night, patients, as a rule, do not bother. In almost any disease of the digestive system, intestinal dysbiosis and flatulence as a manifestation of the latter can be observed.
Other signs - weight loss, anemia, signs of a deficiency of vitamins and trace elements (cracks in the corners of the mouth, dry skin, pinpoint hemorrhages) are fairly common symptoms of inflammatory bowel disease. What to do if the intestines become inflamed?
Nonspecific ulcerative colitis
The causes of the disease are not fully understood. Most likely, it has a genetic nature.
With ulcerative colitis, the rectum is primarily affected. If the disease proceeds for a long time, the inflammatory process spreads to other parts of the large intestine.
The main symptom of the disease is bleeding. Blood is found in feces even during remission.
Ulcerative colitis is characterized by diarrhea, sometimes alternating with constipation. Pain often occurs in the left abdomen.
Crohn's disease by the nature of the process resembles ulcerative colitis, but, in contrast to it, affects all parts of the gastrointestinal tract. Most often, inflammation covers different parts of the ileum, colon and rectum.
Crohn's disease proceeds for a long time, exacerbations alternate with remissions. In the acute period of patients, spastic abdominal pains, bloating, diarrhea, fever, weight loss are disturbing. In the feces, blood and mucus are noticeable.
Often with Crohn's disease, there are cracks in the anus, pain in the anal area. Joint pains, skin rashes are characteristic. With a long course of the disease, complications are possible: fistulas, abscesses, strictures of the affected areas with the development of intestinal obstruction, which can be partial or complete.
The most common appendix disease is acute inflammation, requiring surgical intervention. Inflammation usually occurs as a result of locking the process opening with a solid foreign body.
Symptoms of appendicitis are acute pain in the cavity of the right hip joint, vomiting, leukocytosis (excess white blood cells) and high fever.
The only treatment is removal (appendectomy). Otherwise, perforation and inflammation of the peritoneum with a fatal outcome are possible.
If any of the symptoms described above are repeated often enough or are noted for a long time, intestinal disease may be suspected. To make an accurate diagnosis, you should consult a gastroenterologist. He will be able to carry out the necessary diagnostics, establish the causes and localization of inflammation, prescribe the necessary therapy.
For diagnosis, the following laboratory examination methods are used:
- A complete blood count - an increase in the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and a white blood cell count confirms the presence of an inflammatory process in the body.
- Coprogram - a laboratory study of feces. It allows you to evaluate the functional state of the intestine, to identify the insufficiency of digestive enzymes and the presence of pathological inclusions (mucus, blood, microparasites, residues of undigested food).
- Bacteriological examination of feces - examination of feces for the presence of bacteria, their identification and determination of sensitivity to antibiotics in order to choose an adequate treatment.
In the study of the intestine, as a rule, a comprehensive instrumental study is carried out, including x-ray and endoscopic methods, since they perform different tasks and largely complement each other.
To diagnose inflammatory bowel diseases, the following can be prescribed:
- Fibroesophagogastroduodenoscopy (FEGDS, gastroscopy) - endoscopic examination using optical equipment inserted through the oral cavity to visualize the mucous membrane of the stomach and duodenum. The procedure makes it possible to take tissue for cytological or histological examination.
- Colonoscopy - the principle is the same as FEGDS, only the sensor is inserted through the anus. The large intestine is examined, the condition of the mucous membrane is assessed, the localization of inflammation is determined.
- Video capsule endoscopy is a modern method of examining the intestines, in which the patient swallows a capsule with lighting and a camera, the capsule passes through all sections of the intestine during the day, information is transmitted via radio waves to a computer, and it allows you to assess the condition of the mucous membrane of the entire intestine.
- X-ray examination.
- X-ray - an examination of the stomach and small intestine using a contrast agent. It is carried out after oral administration of an aqueous suspension of barium sulfate. X-ray images recording the progress of the contrast medium allow one to study the parameters and functional state (peristaltic and evacuation functions) of different parts of the small intestine.
- Irrigoscopy - examination of the large intestine by filling the studied sections with a contrast agent. When irrigoscopy, a solution of barium sulfate is injected through the rectum, after which a series of images is taken in various projections. Allows a detailed examination of the mucous membrane and evaluate the work of the large intestine.
Be sure to assign a diet. The acute period involves a complete rejection of mechanically, thermally and chemically coarse food. Liquid and pureed dishes are recommended.
Meals should be fractional - at least 6 times a day. To eliminate irritation of the mucous membrane, it is necessary to completely abandon spicy and fried foods, products with preservatives and chemical additives.
In addition, smoking, alcohol, any smoked products, coffee and even tea are also objects of mucosal irritation. Also, to restore it, it is better to exclude rich soups (and even broths), chocolate and carbonated drinks.
After the end of the acute period of inflammation, the diet gradually expands. It is also necessary to leave this diet very carefully, following the recommendations of the gastroenterologist, in order to avoid complications and relapses.
Pain medication (antispasmodics) used for pain symptoms that often accompany intestinal inflammation (No-shpa, Platifillin, Drotaverin). Thanks to these drugs, spasms of the internal organs of the gastrointestinal tract are eliminated.
To relieve inflammation, anti-inflammatory drugs (tablets, suppositories) and sorbents that bind toxins located in the intestinal lumen and remove them ("Profibor").
Antacids eliminate excessive acidity of gastric juice ("Omeprazole", "De-nol", "Relzer"). Their use allows you to restore the injured walls of the small intestine.
For functional disorders of the stool, use is indicated. symptomatic medication . To combat diarrhea after each act of defecation take tablets based on loperamide ("Loperamide", "Imodium", "Diara"). If inflammation is combined with constipation, painful bowel movements, laxative preparations in the form of lactulose syrups (Goodluck, Portalak) are included in the symptomatic treatment regimen. The use of salt laxatives is contraindicated because of the high risk of relapse of the pathology.
If the patient is diagnosed with inflammation of the distal colon, medications in the form of suppositories (rectal suppositories) are used for treatment.
If an infectious cause of inflammation is confirmed (in particular, the bacterium Helicobacter pylori is detected), connect antibiotics (“Klacid”, “Omefez”, “Promez”, “Amoksikar”). As a rule, the course of treatment with antimicrobials lasts two weeks.
Only a doctor can choose a drug and prescribe a course of antibiotic treatment, since some drugs of this group can have a destructive effect on the intestinal wall.
For the destruction of helminths, anthelmintics are taken - "piperazine", "Albendazole".
Digestive enzyme deficiency correction is carried out using enzyme preparations . Dysbiosis is corrected with probiotics and eubiotics .
According to indications, therapy can be supplemented with mineral waters, multivitamin complexes, mineral supplements and physiotherapeutic treatment.
Small bowel inflammation
A disease such as enteritis is very common. With it, the small intestine becomes inflamed. This causes digestion and mucosal degeneration. Distinguish between acute and chronic enteritis.The duodenum, jejunum and ileum may be involved. More than 3 billion new cases of acute enteritis are detected annually in developed countries. People who do not go to the doctor and do not follow a diet die earlier.
The following causes of acute inflammation of the small intestine in children and adults are distinguished:
- enterobacteriaceae infection,
- adenovirus and enterovirus infections,
- infection with protozoa (giardia),
Chronic enteritis develops against a background of acute if the doctor's recommendations are not followed. Risk factors for the development of this pathology include: dysbiosis, uncontrolled use of antibiotics and NSAIDs, hepatitis, cholecystitis, pancreatitis, gastritis, peptic ulcer. Chronic enteritis is caused by other diseases. It develops a second time.
In acute intestinal inflammation, the symptoms are nonspecific. Acute enteritis is characterized by diarrhea, vomiting, nausea, signs of intoxication (chills, fever, headache). With a viral etiology of the disease, respiratory disorders appear in the form of rhinitis and nasal congestion. The frequency of bowel movements in acute inflammation reaches 10-20 per day. This leads to fluid loss and blood clotting.
In the absence of proper help, hypovolemic shock may develop. Flatulence is a common symptom of the disease. With chronic inflammation of the intestinal mucosa, the clinical picture is more scarce. Enteritis is manifested by frequent urges to defecate, flatulence, tightness of the tongue, dull abdominal pain, pressure drop, tachycardia, weakness.
Remains of food are often found in feces. With a violation of lipid metabolism, the stool becomes greasy and shiny. Common symptoms are characteristic for severe and moderate chronic enteritis. Exacerbations are observed against the background of drinking alcohol or refusing to follow a diet. Chronic inflammation often leads to hypovitaminosis, weight loss, fermentation processes.
The small intestine communicates with the colon. Inflammation can occur as colitis. The defeat of the lower intestine is due to the following factors:
- irregular and improper diet,
- alcohol abuse
- the use of low-quality products,
- food poisoning
- the presence of parasites (helminths),
- violation of acid-base balance,
- tissue ischemia against the background of impaired blood flow.
The cause of inflammation can be anti-inflammatory drugs from the NSAID group. Depending on the underlying cause, the following forms of colitis are distinguished:
Acute inflammation in the intestine is characterized by frequent urination, rumbling, pain in the lower abdomen, diarrhea, sharp, paroxysmal pain. The chair becomes more frequent up to 20-30 times a day. Blood, mucus, or pus is found in the feces. It smells bad. Common symptoms include fever and dry skin and mucous membranes. Patients have reduced appetite. Pain is felt in the lower abdomen. With total damage to the intestine, it is without a clear localization.
The condition normalizes after 1-2 days. With prolonged inflammation, complications (shock, abscess, pyelonephritis, sepsis) may develop. Chronic colitis appears brightly only in the acute phase. It is characterized by aching pain, increased stool, false desires (tenesmus), bloating, rumbling during meals and after it. A hallmark is an increase in symptoms after eating. With ulcerative lesions of the large intestine, streaks of blood are found in the feces.
The most common forms of colitis are proctitis and sigmoiditis. Often ulcers form on the intestinal mucosa. They cause rectal bleeding. Long-term chronic inflammation leads to a deterioration in overall well-being, weight loss, weakness, headache. Night sleep may be disturbed.
In adults and adolescents, a pathology such as ulcerative colitis is often diagnosed. With it, inflammation affects all parts of the large intestine. The incidence rate is up to 80 cases per 100 thousand people. More often female persons are ill. The peak incidence occurs in adolescence and the elderly. The exact causes of ulcerative colitis have not been identified.
With this form of intestinal inflammation, the following symptoms are observed:
- rectal bleeding
- pain during bowel movements,
- stool disorder like diarrhea (with a lesion of the descending colon),
- weight loss,
- lack of appetite.
In patients, the intestine may enlarge and thicken. This is called a megacolon. The main symptom of this pathology is pain. With sigmoiditis, it is felt on the left in the iliac region. If a child is sick, then he can become irritable. With ulcerative colitis, extraintestinal symptoms often occur. These include skin lesions, joint pain, decreased visual acuity. Often, vasculitis, myositis, and glomerulonephritis develop.
The consequences of intestinal inflammation
If treatment is not performed to detect intestinal inflammation, then the likelihood of complications is high. Colitis and enteritis can lead to the following consequences:
- the formation of megacolon,
- massive bleeding
- damage to other organs (kidneys, bones, muscles, joints),
- secondary infection
- hypovolemic shock,
- perforation of the intestinal wall,
- purulent complications.
The presence of ulcerative colitis increases the risk of developing bowel cancer. A dangerous complication is the formation of megacolon. This is a toxic expansion of the intestine against ulcerative colitis. The walls become thin and can break. This is fraught with the development of peritonitis and shock. Enteritis often causes a lack of vitamins, anemia, osteoporosis and dystrophy.
How to detect inflammation
Before treating intestinal inflammation, a preliminary diagnosis must be confirmed. This will require the following studies:
- digital rectal examination
- fecal analysis
- general clinical tests.
To exclude malignant diseases, a piece of mucous is taken. FEGDS allows you to assess the condition of the initial part of the duodenum and exclude gastritis, as well as peptic ulcer. If colitis is suspected, a colonoscopy is mandatory. This study involves the insertion of a tube through the anus. The doctor thoroughly examines the condition of the colon mucosa. Inflammation of the intestinal lymph nodes is often detected.
Of great value are laboratory data. During the analysis, the following violations are identified:
- fecal pH change
- ESR acceleration
To exclude parasitic diseases, feces are examined for helminth eggs and protozoa. When making a diagnosis, hemorrhoids, anal fissures, pancreatitis, cholecystitis, paraproctitis, Crohn's disease, ulcers, liver diseases should be excluded.
How to eliminate inflammation
Relieve acute inflammation in a hospital setting. After eliminating the pain syndrome and other symptoms, you need to continue to be treated at home. With the development of infectious enteritis or colitis on the background of acute intestinal infection, patients are hospitalized in boxing. What to treat patients is known only to the doctor. In acute inflammation of the small intestine, you need to observe bed rest, adhere to a diet, drink more, take painkillers.
With the development of diarrhea, astringent drugs are used. The most commonly used for treatment are Loperamide and Imodium. In severe infectious enteritis, antimicrobials may be prescribed. With the development of dysbiosis, eubiotics are indicated. Chronic enteritis in the phase of remission is treated at home. Patients are shown diet No. 4. In case of exacerbation, it is necessary to enrich the diet with animal proteins.
It is necessary to abandon products irritating the intestinal mucosa. This will help relieve inflammation. In case of digestive disorders, enzyme preparations are used (Festal, Panzinorm). Often prescribed drugs such as Carsil and Essentiale Forte. With severe diarrhea, antiseptics and enveloping drugs are used. In severe cases, infusion therapy is required.
With inflammation of the large intestine, the symptoms, treatment are somewhat different from those with enteritis. Therapy for colitis includes dieting, taking antibiotics (if there is an infectious agent). With sigmoiditis and proctitis, painkillers and healing candles are indicated. Patients are advised to drink potato juice. If helminth eggs are found, you need to take anthelmintic drugs.
All patients should forget about alcohol. With severe pain, the drug Drotaverinum is used. Astringent and enveloping drugs help get rid of diarrhea. The treatment regimen often includes sorbents (Enterosgel), enzymes and eubiotics. With persistent constipation, hydrocolonotherapy is performed.
If a node is found in the colon during an examination, surgery may be necessary. Enteritis and colitis often develop simultaneously. Isolated inflammation is much less common. To avoid this pathology, you need to eat right, treat other diseases and give up alcohol.
Inflammation of the colon can occur as a result of the influence of various factors that are classified into such groups:
- Parasitosis: infection by worms.
- Infections: inflammation can be triggered by germs, viruses or trichomonads.
- Autoimmune processes: human immunity takes the cells of the intestinal mucosa as foreign and produces antibodies to fight them, provoking an inflammatory process.
- Genetic predisposition: an inherited shortage of gastric elements and certain inflammatory diseases can affect parents, and then on their children.
- Disturbed diet: frequent consumption of fatty foods, overeating, spicy and fried foods cause inflammation in any part of the gastrointestinal tract, often in its upper sections (small intestine and duodenum).
- Abnormal blood circulation in the vessels of the intestinal walls due to narrowing of the arterial canal and atherosclerotic abnormalities.
- Damage to the intestinal environment: the superiority of pathogenic flora becomes the cause of the inflammatory process in the mucosa.
Colon inflammation is a designation that describes the presence of inflammation in the mucosa of one or more intestinal tracts.
The inflammatory development system refers to the fact that due to the influence of a pathogenic factor, the mucous cells die, the blood supply to the area becomes more intense (hyperemia), a malfunction appears (nutrients are not absorbed, cells in the diseased zone do not produce substances) and soreness.
Inflammation of the colon is divided into several types, due to the localization of the inflammatory focus:
Inflammation of the small intestine is determined, the phenomenon tends to occur only in a separate area or damage the entire small intestine.
The disorder is noted only in the duodenum. Pathology begins with the first section of the small intestine or duodenal bulb (in this area, the stomach passes into the small intestine).
An inflammatory process of the lymph nodes of the intestine is noted. Often the provocateurs of the disease are viruses and infections.
The inflammatory process of the large intestine is noted. The phenomenon develops as a result of autoimmune processes, infections. Inflammation of the mucosa is also called colitis. As a rule, the entire large intestine is affected, but an inflammatory process also occurs in the lower part of the large intestine.
Colon disease can be divided into acute and chronic form. In turn, the acute form lasts no more than a month, and chronic - from six months or more.
Very often, the disease develops in women during pregnancy, since the woman carrying the child is more vulnerable. The reasons for the development of the disease in pregnant women are the same, and the chances of its occurrence are much higher.
2 Emerging Symptoms
With inflammation of the small intestine, the symptoms may not be related to the localization of the center of the pathology. So, the main symptoms of inflammation can be as follows:
- Soreness. As a rule, pain is bursting or constricting. Sometimes it’s difficult to establish its center. These may be signs of inflammation of the large or small intestine.
- Nausea, which, as a rule, indicates an inflammatory process in the duodenum or small intestine and worries after eating.
- Desires for vomiting. They can signal inflammation in the upper intestine, appear after eating. With vomiting, the condition is relieved.
- Bloating. This symptom of the inflammatory process can occur due to a lack of substances that are involved in digestion.
- Unstable stool, development of diarrhea. If constipation is a concern, then perhaps this is a signal for inflammation of the large intestine. Such a sign may indicate inflammation of the mucosa, may develop due to improper absorption of useful components by the small intestine.
- Anemia (anemia) can occur due to a lack of iron in the body, which occurs due to damage to the intestines.
- An increase in body temperature, which is noted very often during pathology.
The first symptoms of intestinal inflammation
Signs of the disease largely depend on what exactly provoked irritation of the mucosa of one of the sections of the gastrointestinal tract, as well as on how extensive the focus of inflammation is.
In general, the following symptoms of the pathological condition of the intestine in adult men and women are distinguished:
- cutting pain in the center of the abdomen with a slight displacement to the left side (pain is acute, aching, or in the form of colic),
- nausea, and in severe cases, the occurrence of spasms and the release of vomit,
- increase in body temperature to a level of 37.3-37.8 degrees Celsius,
- bloating and increased flatulence,
- loss of appetite, or long intervals between meals,
- digestion of food consumed too slowly
- constant and causeless burping,
- physical weakness and fatigue,
- stool disorder, which manifests itself in periodic constipation and sudden onset of diarrhea.
Depending on the individual characteristics of the body of each person individually, these symptoms appear in a brighter or less saturated clinical picture.
Most often, this segment of the gastrointestinal tract suffers due to the fact that a person abuses alcohol, ignores basic hygiene rules and does not wash his hands before eating, introducing harmful bacteria and viral microorganisms into the body cavity. A large number of cases where the large intestine became inflamed due to helminthic invasion and parasitization of flat and roundworms of various types in it.
This part of the gastrointestinal tract plays an important role in the elimination of digestive waste, which was formed after the assimilation of consumed food and has its own vulnerabilities.
The causes of its inflammation are in a sedentary and sedentary lifestyle of the sick, expansion of hemorrhoids, anal sex, constipation, the formation of anal fissures, mechanical injuries resulting from falls or accidents.
It is not strange, this body is much less likely than others to suffer from inflammatory processes. This fact is justified by the fact that bile, which has bactericidal properties, regularly enters the intestinal cavity. Therefore, pathogenic microflora practically does not develop in it.
Despite this, a painful condition of the duodenum can occur due to an increased concentration of hydrochloric acid in the gastric juice, tumor neoplasms of malignant etiology, a lack of digestive enzymes of the pancreas, malnutrition, too diluted bile, and peptic ulcer.
The mucous membrane of this gastrointestinal segment is negatively affected by the long-term use of antibiotic drugs that disrupt the stable balance of beneficial and pathogenic microorganisms, hormonal imbalance, heavy physical exertion and daily stressful situations, the presence in the diet of foods containing too much concentration animal fats.
To organize the correct and effective treatment process, it is important for the gastroenterologist to establish the true cause that provoked the inflammatory process in a specific section of the intestine or epithelial tissues of the intestine located outside its segments.
Treatment for intestinal inflammation
The organization of the therapeutic process depends on the severity of the disease, as well as on a number of causative factors that led to inflammation of the intestinal mucosa. The functional ability of the organ against the background of a developing disease plays an important role. In relation to a patient of an adult age group, several directions can be applied at once in the treatment of a painful condition of the digestive tract. Consider all existing techniques.
Each drug has its own pharmacological purpose and properties. To restore the intestines, medicines of this form of release are used, which belong to the following categories:
- synthetic hormone-based corticosteroids,
- antibacterial, antiviral and antifungal agents,
- capsules containing beneficial bacterial cultures (for dysbiosis),
- antidiarrheal or laxative tablets,
- medicines belonging to the group of aminosalicylates,
- anthelmintic, if the cause of the disease is helminthiasis.
What type of medication in the treatment of inflammatory processes in the intestine should be chosen in a particular clinical case, the attending gastroenterologist determines on the basis of the results of the diagnostic examination.
In addition to the tablet form of release, all drugs in these categories can be used in the form of rectal suppositories.
The formation of a proper diet containing only biologically useful products is also one of the elements of complex therapy. Therefore, the patient is recommended to adhere to the following menu:
- salads of fresh vegetables and greens seasoned with sunflower or olive oil,
- heavily boiled cereal grains,
- kefir, yogurt, fermented baked milk,
- steamed or boiled meat
- lean broth of chicken, rabbit, young veal,
- gray or stale bread,
- vegetable soups
- mashed potatoes,
- milk jelly, fruit drinks, mineral water without gases.
Smoked, very fatty, fried, spicy, salty, pickled food is categorically prohibited. Dishes from this group irritate the intestinal mucosa and lower segments of the digestive system, which only worsens the patient’s well-being and enhances the manifestation of painful symptoms.
Home treatment with folk remedies
Alternative medicine offers its own recipes for the treatment of inflammatory processes in the intestines, which include the use of the following drugs:
- chamomile broth, which is prepared by boiling 15 grams of a dry plant in 1 liter of water for 20 minutes, and is taken 200 grams 3 times a day 25 minutes before meals,
- onion juice (3 small onions of medium size should be finely chopped, sprinkled with 3 teaspoons of granulated sugar, wait 4 hours for them to pour juice, and then take 2 teaspoons 20 minutes before eating),
- acid enemas, which are made 1 time in 3 days, and 1 tea boat of pure lemon juice is added to 1 liter of boiled water at room temperature (the method cleanses the intestines and at the same time has an antimicrobial effect),
- Eating cakes of steamed wheat bran, eaten every morning on an empty stomach in the amount of 150 grams (bran of the indicated mass is poured with boiling water, covered with a metal lid for steaming for 30 minutes, and then taken before the main breakfast).
These are the most effective and time-tested folk remedies for treating intestinal inflammation, which are easy enough to use while at home.
Bowel treatment at home with folk remedies
The most popular folk remedies for restoring the functioning of the digestive system are tinctures and decoctions of medicinal plants.
Many experts believe that herbal medicine for intestinal diseases is a truly effective and reliable method.
However, treatment at home should be carried out under the constant supervision of a gastroenterologist.
In severe diarrhea, along with drug therapy, patients are recommended to take astringents. For these purposes, you can use decoctions of chamomile, sage, St. John's wort, blueberries and bird cherry.
- 1 tbsp St. John's wort herbs pour 1 cup boiling water, leave for 40 minutes, take 1/3 cup 3 times a day before meals.
- Pour into a pan 2 tbsp. blueberries and 3 tablespoons berries of bird cherry, mix, pour 10 tbsp. water, bring to a boil, simmer for 10-12 minutes. Take 1/4 cup 2 times a day.
With flatulence and bloating, herbal remedies are effective:
- Mint leaves, seeds of anise, caraway seeds, fennel - all equally. 2 tsp brew the mixture with 1 cup boiling water, insist in a tightly sealed container for 6 hours. Drink in small sips 1 glass during the day.
- Rowan fruits (4 parts), mint leaves (3 parts), dill seeds (3 parts), valerian root (2 parts). One tablespoon brew the mixture with 1 cup boiling water, leave for 4 hours in a tightly sealed container. Drink half a glass 2 times a day.
- Mix 1 tbsp. caraway seeds, 4 tbsp valerian roots, 6 tablespoons chamomile flowers. Then 1 tbsp. brew the mixture with 1 cup boiling water, insist for 3-4 hours in a sealed container, strain. Take 1 glass in the morning and evening.
Inflammation of the ileum is called ileitis. The disease is accompanied by:
- raising the temperature to subfebrile values (37.1-38.0ºС),
- sharp abdominal pain
- general malaise
- a decrease in the secretion of enzymes of the intestinal tract.
IMPORTANT! Often, ileitis develops in young people from 20 to 40 years old, living in the city.
In the large intestine, three departments are distinguished:
- Cecum. The proximal colon, which has in its composition an appendix.
- Colon. In it, ascending, transverse, descending and sigmoid are distinguished.
- Rectum. The distal gastrointestinal tract, ending with an anal sphincter.
The main function of this part of the intestine is the absorption of fluid and the formation of feces.
The advanced inflammation of the colon, covering all its departments, is called ulcerative colitis. It is characterized by the formation of ulcers. Most often, such a pathology develops after the transfer of some viral diseases.
Inflammation of the cecum is called tiflitis. Tiflitis is often the initial stage of the inflammatory process. The disease is accompanied by pain on the right side:
- 6 hours after eating,
- with prolonged standing,
- if you lie on your left side.
IMPORTANT! Quite often, pain can pass to the lower back.
Tiflitis is also accompanied by the following symptoms:
- frequent burping
- impaired appetite
- temperature increase up to 38ºС,
- constipation, which alternates with diarrhea.
Appendicitis is an inflammation of the appendix. Its cause is microorganisms that begin to multiply intensively in the appendix. Accompanied by acute pain in the right side.
INTERESTING! Previously, small children were specially removed appendix in order to avoid the development of appendicitis in the future. But studies have shown that this entailed a significant decrease in immunity.
Inflammation develops with ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease.
With colitis, ulcers form, and in an advanced stage, necrosis of epithelial tissues occurs. Symptoms of a pathological condition are:
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- blood in the stool
- frequent urge to defecate.
With Crohn's disease, ulcers appear, which are then converted to scars. It is accompanied by such signs:
- diarrhea that lasts more than 6 months,
- dramatic weight loss
- lack of appetite,
- abdominal pain.
IMPORTANT! With Crohn's disease, all layers of the colon become inflamed.
Sigmoiditis is an inflammation of the sigmoid colon. Often, the disease occurs along with proctitis or other pathologies in the intestine. All layers of the intestine can be affected, while the mildest form of the disease, accompanied by inflammation of the epithelial layer only, is called catarrhal. Erosive and ulcerative forms are also distinguished.
In severe cases, perisigmoiditis may develop with the formation of adhesions between the loops of the intestine.
Symptoms characterizing inflammation of the sigmoid colon:
- sharp pain in the left side,
- lack of appetite,
- diarrhea, sometimes constipation,
- deterioration in overall health.
Inflammation of the rectum is called proctitis. It is characterized by a number of symptoms that occur spontaneously:
- pain during the act of defecation,
- the presence of blood or pus in the feces,
- temperature rise.
Gastrointestinal inflammation and allergies - relationship
Inflammation of the digestive tract depends on the presence of an allergic reaction. It was found that with an increase in the number of certain bacteria in the intestine, for example, the genus Clostridium and Escherichia, not only the inflammatory process occurs, but also the risk of developing a disease such as intestinal allergy. Such representatives of the microbiota contribute to the occurrence of a violation of the intestinal barrier, due to which large proteins can penetrate the bloodstream. As a result, immunoglobulins can define them as foreign. Because of this, an inflammatory process develops - an allergy, which has a direct connection with intestinal inflammation.
How are inflammatory processes manifested - symptoms
As could be understood from the above, some inflammations of certain departments have their own symptoms. Nevertheless, for each of them common features are characteristic, namely:
- abdominal pains - they occur spontaneously and do not have a certain localization,
- nausea and vomiting - appears, as a rule, immediately after eating or after a short time,
- bloating - since the production of digestive enzymes is disrupted, inadequate food processing leads to the formation of gases,
- diarrhea or constipation - such digestive disorders can alternate or occur separately,
- sudden weight loss - in case of violation of the structure of the villi of the intestinal epithelium, the gastrointestinal tract cannot perform its function properly, as a result of which an adult or children's body cannot receive all the necessary nutrients,
- anemia - due to impaired absorption of compounds from the small intestine into the blood, the body does not receive such a trace element as iron in the right amount, as a result of which anemia develops.
In order to cure intestinal inflammation, treatment should be based on the results of the study. Only by establishing the cause and localization of the disease can we guarantee a therapeutic effect and a positive outcome of therapy.
If the inflammatory process caused by microorganisms, then appropriate antibiotics are prescribed.
IMPORTANT! When using antimicrobial drugs, it is recommended to take prebiotics in parallel. This is necessary to restore normal intestinal microbiota, and, accordingly, the resumption of its proper functioning.
If the cause of the inflammation is an autoimmune disease, then immunosuppressants are prescribed to the patient.
NOTE! To use any medications should only after prescribing them by your doctor. If all recommendations are not followed, complications can be provoked.
Often, intestinal inflammation is treated with conservative methods. Surgical interventions are rarely resorted to.
You can also treat such a disease with folk remedies, but then you need to consult a specialist.
IMPORTANT! During therapy and for prevention, it is recommended to follow a special diet.
Diet for inflammatory processes in the intestines
Regardless of which inflammation of which section of the intestine is diagnosed, the diet should involve the rejection of those foods in the diet that can cause irritation of the mucous membrane:
- spicy food,
- sparkling water,
- alcoholic drinks
- fatty food,
- canned food
- high seasoning dishes
- smoked meats.
It is strongly recommended to eat boiled food, as well as lean meat. You also need to drink plenty of plain water. Eating should be frequent - the optimal amount is 5-6 times a day.
NOTE! A detailed diet is prescribed only by a gastroenterologist based on the diagnosis.
What to do for prevention?
To protect yourself from such a disease, it is recommended to follow a number of rules:
- Eat correctly (observe a balanced diet with a ratio of all necessary components). Do not eat foods that can cause allergies or contain large amounts of preservatives, etc.
- Take drugs only after prescribing them by your doctor, given their interaction with other substances.
- Timely treat diseases in order to prevent their transition to the chronic stage.
- Avoid stressful situations.
- Periodically undergo medical examinations.
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Inflammation of the intestines is a serious disease that requires timely diagnosis and treatment. With the right approach, negative consequences can be avoided, as well as preventing the development of such a disease.